The Princeton Guide to Ecology

By Simon A. Levin | Go to book overview

VI.9
Regulating Services: A Focus
on Disease Regulation
Peter Daszak and A. Marm Kilpatrick
OUTLINE
1. Infectious diseases as disrupters of ecosystem services
2. Diseases as providers of regulating ecosystem services
3. Ecosystem regulation of infectious diseases
4. Valuing the economic impact of pathogens and their ecosystem services

Over the past few decades there has been an explosion of interest in the ecology of infectious diseases and their roles in ecosystem function. Many studies have focused on the dynamics of pathogens within human, other animal, and plant populations and their role in causing mass mortality events and population declines. Other researchers have focused on diseases that are increasing in incidence or geographic or host range—“emerging” infectious diseases—of humans, wildlife, and plants.

However, relatively few researchers have approached disease ecology in the context of ecosystem services, where diseases, parasites, or pathogens perform functions potentially useful to humans. In this chapter, we review the literature on three aspects of parasites and pathogens in the field of ecosystem services. The first is probably the most well known: their role in morbidity and mortality to their hosts, through which they disrupt the host’s ability to provide an ecosystem service, i.e., disrupting the survival or life-history success of ecosystem service providers. The second is the role of pathogens as regulating service providers by suppressing populations of pest species, resisting invasion, and acting as biocontrol agents. The third aspect is poorly understood but a subject of growing interest: rather than parasites performing the service per se, it is the role of species, communities, and biodiversity in regulating the risk of infectious diseases to people, i.e., performing a regulating service, that reduces disease risk. The thrust of our chapter is to review the state of the field, and we have paid particular attention to highlighting those areas where future research is likely to be most fruitful and to identifying strategies to take the field forward. We have therefore added a fourth section that discusses efforts and strategies to estimate the value of pathogens and the cost of their impact on natural capital and ecosystem services.


GLOSSARY

density dependent. A density-dependent process varies with the population density of the species concerned. For instance, below a certain host population size, parasitic infections may not occur (there are not enough hosts for the parasite to be transmitted between them), whereas above a certain host population size, parasitic infections may become prevalent. The probability of any individual host getting infected depends on the density of surrounding hosts.

emerging infectious disease. A disease that has recently and significantly increased in impact, in the number of cases it causes, or in its geographic range; a disease that is caused by a newly evolved pathogen or has recently been transmitted from one species to another to result in an outbreak in the new host species.

parasite. An organism that resides within or on, and is nutritionally dependent on, another organism. In this article, we include all forms of infectious microbes, including viruses, prokaryotes (e.g., bacteria), and eukaryotic parasites (e.g., roundworms).

pathogen. An infectious agent or parasite that causes illness in its host, usually defined as clinical illness, i.e., causing significant pathology or damaging physiological change.

-634-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Princeton Guide to Ecology
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 810

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.