The Princeton Guide to Ecology

By Simon A. Levin | Go to book overview

Index
References in italics refer to figures.
abundance: body size and, 392–93; distribution and, 469–70, 471; log abundance plots (normal distributions), 259, 267; macroecology and frequency of trait distribution, 388; niche theory and, 267; as proxy for ecosystem function, 592; rank-abundance curves, 258; relative, 258–59, 469–70; species abundance distribution, 264, 266–67, 466; species co-occurrence and, 268–69; “veil line” and sampling of, 266–67
acidification: acid rain, 343, 354; hysteresis and, 404; of marine ecosystems, 411, 482, 499, 512, 548, 552–53, 555, 619; nitrogen cycling and, 353–54
activation energy, 393
adaptation: adaptive syndromes, 464, 466, 467, 468, 470, 472; antibodies as adaptive response, 18; balanced polymorphism, 93; character adaptation, 93; character adjustment, 270; developmental constraints and, 93; to dispersal, 43–44; environmental change and, 108; vs. exaptation, 94; geographic variation and, 98–99; gradualism and, 93, 94, 99; macroevolutionary, 95, 97; microevolutionary, 95; modularity and, 93, 94; molecular population genetics and, 97–99; natural selection and, 2, 102; polymorphism and, 99; as process, 93; selfish genetic elements, 93, 94, 99–100; to stressful habitats, 25. See also adaptive radiation; phenotypic plasticity
Adaptation and Natural Selection (Williams), 62
adaptive management, 522, 619, 623, 680–81; PVAs and, 526–27, 680, plate 16
adaptive plasticity. See phenotypic plasticity
adaptive radiation, 2, 123, 129, 143–44, plates 3 and 4; behavioral plasticity and, 150; climate change and, 148; coevolution, 144–45; colonization and, 144, 148–50; competition and, 143; current examples of, 146–48; dispersal and, 148–50; divergence and, 123, 144, 150–51, 152; ecological release and, 150; environmental or landscape changes and, 143, 144; experimental manipulation and, 143, 148, 152; extrinsic factors and, 143; founder events and, 150; gene flow and, 151; habitat availability and, 144; hybridization and, 151; initiation of, 148–50; key innovations and, 17–18, 143, 144–45; likelihood of, 146; linked to emergence of new, isolated habitats, 145–46; molecular basis for, 152; molecular research and, 143; phenotypic plasticity and, 150; predation and, 151; sexual selection and, 151; speciation and, 143
adaptive syndromes, 464, 466, 467, 468, 470, 472
aesthetic services, 574, 575, 576, 611, 647, 652, 661, 662, 667, 671, 675; conservation efforts targeting, 675
agriculture and agroecosystems, 597; agricultural landscapes, 436; artificial fertilizers and nutrient imbalance, 296, 336–37, 399,
411–12, 553–54, 582, 599–601, 603, 620, 631, 713, 716, 724, 728; biodiversity and, 602–3, 727; biological controls and, 598–99, 683–88; climate regulation and, 475–77, 601–2, 727, 728; croplands (arable land), 724, 725; crop types, 725–26; cultural services provided by, 598; deforestation linked to, 58, 452, 722, 727; disease regulation and, 602; ecological management strategies and, 599, 601, 603–4, 661, 665; ecosystem services in, 573, 597–604; extensification, 724; fertilizers and nutrient enrichment, 296, 336–37, 352, 353, 399, 411, 553, 555, 582, 599–603, 726–28, 729; fire frequency changes linked to, 454; forest plantations (agroforestry), 567, 597, 603, 608, 729; habitat fragmentation and, 423, 563–64, 727; herbicide tolerant crops, 665; human appropriation of net primary productivity (HANPP) and, 727; hydrologic cycle and, 600–601; infectious diseases and, 722, 729; intensification, 724, 726–27; irrigation, 476, 480, 601, 704, 726–27, 728; land area devoted to, 597, 725; land use and landscape changes linked to, 475–77, 724, 729–30, plate 23; nutrient cycling, 599–600, 727; pasture lands and grazing, 725, plates 9, 23; pest control in, 211, 598–99; pollination and, 599; as polycultures, 597, 598; provisioning services provided by, 597; regulating services affected by, 597–98, 600–602; supporting services provided by, 598–600; support of biodiversity by, 598; technology and productivity of, 660, 665, 727–28
air quality, 653, 664–65
airsheds, 347
albedo, 614; climate and planetary, 553, 609, 615, 665
alien species. See invasive species
Allee distribution model, 39
Allee effect, 59, 60, 514, 517
Allen’s rule, 91, 131
allometry, 34–35, 392, 515
allopatry, 88, 135, 141, 494
alternative stable states, 395, 548–49, 555, 568; alternative dynamic regimes and complexity of real world systems, 398–99; catastrophic shifts and, 395–401, 402; competition as mechanism for, 400–401; cusp bifurcation and, 398, 399; experimental evidence for, 403–5; facilitation as mechanism for, 400; fold bifurcations and, 396–97; hysteresis and, 397–98; management applications of, 405–6; overexploitation as mechanism for, 401; path dependency and, 403–4, 405; resilience and, 398, 405–6; restoration ecology and, 568, 569; in shallow lakes, 403–4; signatures of, 401–5; spatial boundaries and, 401–2; stability landscapes, 397–98
altruism, 59; evolution of, 60–62; fitness and, 107; Hamilton’s rule for kin selection, 61; kin selection and, 63; mutualism contrasted with, 236–37; phenotypic selection and, 107; reciprocal altruism, 61, 63
amensalism, 233
anatomy. See functional morphology
ancestral state reconstructions, 271
antagonistic pleiotropy, 77
antibiotic resistance, 115, 130
antifreeze proteins, 15
aphotic zones (in lakes), 348
aquaculture, 505, 549, 550–51, 555, 662, 673
aquatic ecosystems: acidification of, 322, 354, 411, 482, 499, 512, 552–53, 619; climate change and, 559; concentration of pollutants in, 527, 549, 553, 631; glaciers, snow, and ice caps as repositories of water, 627, 703, 704–5; hypertrophic, 712–13; lake, pond, and reservoir ecosystems, 627; as mesotrophic, 712–13; as oligotrophic, 352, 383–84, 488, 490–91, 495, 505, 712, 713; runningwater ecosystems, 627, 716–17; trophic conversion in, 298; wetlands, 627. See also marine ecosystems
area sampling for patterns of biodiversity, 468, 472–73
armpit effect, 63
assessments: collection and dissemination of information linked to, 755–56; communicative function of, 755; design of, 757–58; framing of, 756; operational process and, 756–57; participation and, 756; policy and, 755; as political instruments, 759; purposes and functions of, 755; standards of evidence

-793-

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