LINKS BETWEEN TRANSNATIONAL CRIMINALS
HAVING IDENTIFIED THE CONDITIONS under which transnational criminal organizations use corruption versus violence and under which transnational criminal activities influence individual and state security, these insights need to be situated in the context of major nonstate forces with which criminals conspire and collude, with special attention to transnational terrorism. After presenting the general context of these other disruptive elements, this chapter uncovers similarities and differences and mutual connections between transnational crime and transnational terrorism, as well as modes of criminal facilitation of terrorism. The resulting security challenges merit special attention, for contrasting interpretations of them have led to quite different—and sometimes mutually undercutting—defensive orientations by restraining authorities toward transnational criminals and transnational terrorists.
Understanding fully the important interaction between transnational criminals and transnational terrorists requires explicit consideration of the broader security-threatening context within which criminals and terrorists operate. Today’s anarchic international system encompasses a multiplicity of globally disruptive nonstate parties such as militant religious movements, unruly ethnopolitical groups, ecoterrorists and anti-globalizationists, warlords, and insurgents/rebels.1 These groups have re-emerged in the twenty-first century to fill the voids where effective governance is missing, yet they do not possess the traditional characteristics of strong stable states—“high levels of legiti