CHAPTER 10
Pressure groups and the European Union

For many years, pressure groups in Europe operated at or below the level of the state.
However, they have been active in the EU since its formation, playing a significant role in
its political development and policy-making. In recent decades increasing interest has
been shown in this ‘European’ dimension of their activity. As Mazey and Richardson1
concluded: ‘It is no longer possible to understand the policy process in … the member
states of the EU … and especially the role of pressure groups in that process without
taking account of the shift of power to Brussels’.

In this chapter, we examine some of the interest groups, promotional groups and New
Social Movements
that operate at the European level and some of the trends in group
activity.


Growth of lobbying in the European Union
In recent years, pressure groups across the member states have needed to modify their traditional methods of – and targets for – lobbying, in order to cater for their closer involvement in the European Union. They recognise that Europe has played an increasing role in national politics, especially since the passing of the Single European Act. The Maastricht Agreement and the completion of the internal market moved the Union further along the route of closer integration. Today, much decision-making power has passed to Brussels. The EU is active in a range of areas well beyond those concerned with the initial creation of a tarifffree trading area.As countries have ceded a considerable degree of decision-making power to European institutions, it is not surprising that many groups feel the need to protect and promote their interests in Brussels and Strasbourg. Many of the measures introduced over the last decade and a half have concerned the implementation of the SEA. Designed to eliminate the technical, physical and fiscal barriers to intra-Community trade, and the barriers to the free provision of professional and other services, they were and remain particularly relevant to group activity.It is very difficult to assess how many bodies are involved in contacts with EU machinery, but all estimates suggest that the number has increased hugely in recent decades. Recent research by Gray2 and Wessels3 suggests that there are around 2,000 trade associations, interest groups, regions, national associations, think tanks, consultants and lawyers engaged in lobbying the Union. Partly this is a reflection of the growth of EU responsibilities (‘competences’) and the impact of the SEA and the Maastricht Treaty. But other factors include:
a growing understanding by groups of the importance of the European dimension and of the opportunities that exist for lobbying. In the early years of membership, the full

-171-

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The European Union
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Boxes vii
  • Tables viii
  • Maps ix
  • Introduction x
  • Background Information xv
  • Section One- History 1
  • Introduction 3
  • Chapter 1 - The Drive for European Unity to 1973 5
  • Chapter 2 - From Community to Union, 1973–93 30
  • Chapter 3 - Consolidating the European Union, 1993 To the Present Day 49
  • Chapter 4 - The Movement to Integration- A Theoretical Perspective 61
  • Section Two- Institutions 73
  • Introduction 75
  • Chapter 5 - Institutions of the European Union 76
  • Chapter 6 - Policy-Making and Law-Making Processes 97
  • Chapter 7 - Democracy and the European Union 115
  • Section Three- Representation 127
  • Introduction 129
  • Chapter 8 - Elections to the European Parliament 130
  • Chapter 9 - Political Parties and the European Union 152
  • Chapter 10 - Pressure Groups and the European Union 171
  • Section Four- Policies 189
  • Introduction 191
  • Chapter 11 - The Union Budget 196
  • Chapter 12 - First-Pillar Policies 204
  • Chapter 13 - Second- And Third-Pillar Policies 230
  • Section Five- Attitudes 239
  • Introduction 241
  • Chapter 14 - Member States 250
  • Chapter 15 - Britain and Europe- A Case Study 266
  • Conclusion- the State of the Union, Past and Present 277
  • References 294
  • Further Reading 303
  • Index 307
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