1. Marx, Eastern Question, 2.
2. For a detailed discussion of the British role in the making of the Middle East, see Adelson, London and the Invention of the Middle East, as well as his chapter in this volume. For the Middle East as a security concept, see Bilgin, “Inventing Middle Easts,” 10–37. For a geopolitical analysis of the Middle East, see Davutoğlu, Stratejik Derinlik, 129–43, 323–455, as well as the chapter by Waleed Hazbun in this volume.
3. For a fairly recent designs of the region, see Lewis, “Rethinking the Middle East,” 99–119; “G8-Greater Middle East Partnership,” Al-Hayat (February 13, 2004).
4. For the variability and indefinability of the region, see Pearcy, The Middle East—An Indefinable Region, 407–16; Keddie, “Is There a Middle East?” 255–71; Achcar, “Fantasy of a Region That Does Not Exist”; and the chapter in this volume by Michael E. Bonine, “Of Maps and Regions: Where Is the Geographer’s Middle East?”
5. Argyll, Eastern Question, xv.
6. Millard, Our Eastern Question.
7. Duruy, Abrégé d’histoire universelle, 601–14.
8. Fysh, Time of the End, 19.
9. Weethe, Eastern Question in Its Various Phases, x.
10. Marriott, Eastern Question, 1.
11. Sorel, Eastern Question in the Eighteenth Century, 9.
12. Pepin, Deux ans de règne, 1830–1832, 362; “France,” Morning Chronicle (London) (May 18, 1833); “German Papers,” Morning Chronicle (London) (June 17, 1833); “Foreign Intelligence,” Caledonian Mercury (December 15, 1834); “Foreign Intelligence,” Bell’s Life in London and Sporting Chronicle (February 2, 1834); “Egypt and Mohammed Ali, or Travel in the Valley of the Nile, by James Augustus Saint-John,” La
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Publication information: Book title: Is There a Middle East?The Evolution of a Geopolitical Concept. Contributors: Michael E. Bonine - Editor, Abbas Amanat - Editor, Michael Ezekiel Gasper - Editor. Publisher: Stanford University Press. Place of publication: Stanford, CA. Publication year: 2012. Page number: 243.
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