To God for making all possible.
To Professors Werner Sollors and Joaquim F. Coelho for their careful critique and incessant, unfailing support of the project at every stage. To Professor Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham for your feedback and guidance at the early stages of the project.
To Kathy George in the Department of Comparative Literature for your diligence in taking care of us students during your time at Harvard. To Carlos Varon in the department of Romance Languages and Literatures for your consultations on my Spanish translations and general copyediting. To Professor Steven Kaplan for your generous critique.
To my incredibly erudite undergraduate advisees, willing to lend their eyes and ears to the project: Aaron Frazier and Manny Antunes.
To LitVerlag for permission to republish a version of “Translations of Transnational Black Icons in the Poetics of Frances Harper: Brazil’s Zumbi and Cuba’s Maceo,” from Loopholes and Retreats: African American Writers and the Nineteenth Century ; to Dr. Luis Miletti for permission to republish an edited version of “Race and redemption in 19th century ‘American’ poetry across the Americas: Francis Harper’s ‘Deliverance’ and Cristina Ayala’s ‘Redención,’” from Negritud: Revista de Estudios Afro-Latinoamericanos.
To my mother, Jeanette A. Callahan, for giving me the greatest head start I could ever ask for by being my first teacher.
To my father, Allen D. Callahan, for your advice, feedback, and exampleship.