Color in the Classroom: How American Schools Taught Race, 1900-1954

By Zoë Burkholder | Go to book overview

INDEX
ACDIF. See American Committee for Democracy and Intellectual Freedom (ACDIF)
ACE (American Council on Education), 79–81
African Americans
IQ tests, 60
literacy skills, 36, 37
mass migrations during World War I, 35
as nationless race, 34–39
and 1939 World’s Fair, 61, 201n67
school segregation, 35, 168, 174
teaching associations, 5
tolerance efforts directed toward, 13, 98, 99, 103, 107–9, 208n13
See also civil rights movement; educational discourse on race; Negro History lessons
AJC (American Jewish Committee). See American Jewish Committee (AJC)
American Anthropological Association, 51, 60
American Biology Teacher (journal)
on eugenics, 57–58, 200n46
on tolerance education, 120, 124–25, 133–34
as window on educational discourse, 6
American Committee for Democracy and Intellectual Freedom (ACDIF)
Boas’s involvement with, 51, 53–54, 59, 199n27
founding and funding of, 63–64, 199n27
1939 World’s Fair exhibit, 60–61
American Council Institute of Pacific Relations, 143
American Council on Education (ACE), 79–81
American democracy
projecting to transnational audience, 174–75
racism as threat to, 96, 178
tolerance education as fortification of, 4, 8, 10, 44, 45, 98, 99–100, 101–2, 108, 112, 124, 136, 151, 171
See also Americanization programs
American Dilemma, An (Myrdal), 172
American Eugenics Society, 57, 61
American Federation of Labor, 143
American Historical Association (AHA), 85
American Indians. See Native Americans
Americanization programs
assimilationist agenda of, 163, 190n16
as citizenship training, 11, 16, 17–20
cultural gifts movement as counter to, 20–23, 29
and international education, 26
treatment of cultural traits in, 16, 17–20
American Jewish Committee (AJC), 57, 63–64, 143, 202n82
American Jewish Congress, 143
American Museum of Natural History (AMNH)
link to eugenics movement, 205n64
Mead’s association with, 83, 84, 85, 91, 92, 205n64
American Red Cross, segregation of blood, 117, 125, 126, 159, 180
Americans All—Immigrants All (radio show), 28
American Unity (journal), 110, 122, 131, 143, 168
AMNH. See American Museum of Natural History (AMNH)
anthropology/anthropologists
and Brown v. Board of Education, 5
campaign to undermine racism, 4–5, 10–13, 46, 60, 95, 120–23, 132, 171, 180, 182–83
critique of eugenics movement, 58–60, 61, 201n66
culture concept of, 6, 7–8, 21, 67, 181, 203n8
postwar retreat from educational reform, 172, 182
race concept, 5, 6
See also American Anthropological Association; Benedict, Ruth; Boas, Franz; educational discourse on race; Mead, Margaret; scientific definition of race; Weltfish, Gene

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