III
RULERS OF ITALY

KEY DATES IN CHAPTER III
753–510 BCThe Regal Period of Roman history, as calculated by Varro (But an average reign of over 30 years for each of seven kings of Rome is implausible)
509 BCRome’s first treaty with Carthage (others followed in 348 and 306) supposedly following rapidly on the foundation of the Republic
496 BCTraditional date of the battle of Lake Regillus in which Rome defeated the Latin League
494 BCTraditional date for the first secession of the plebs, the beginning of a long struggle for political emancipation conventionally termed the Conflict of the Orders
396 BCTraditional date of the destruction of Veii by Rome
390 BCTraditional date of the Gallic sack of Rome
343–290 BCRome frequently at war with Samnites of central Italy (later remembered as three Samnite wars)
340–338 BCWar with the Latins ends in the disbanding of the Latin League.
336–323 BCReign of Alexander III (the Great) of Macedon, conqueror of Greece and the Persian Empire
287 BCThe Lex Hortensia makes decisions of the plebeians binding on the community as a whole. The conventional end of the Conflict of the Orders.
280–275 BCPyrrhus of Epirus campaigns in Italy against Rome and Sicily against Carthage and then returns across the Adriatic
NB Most dates before Pyrrhus’ invasion derive from conjectures made by antiquarians in the last century BC. The first serious histories of the west were those written by Timaeus of Sicilian Tauromenium and by Fabius Pictor (of Rome) in the early and later third century BC respectively. Both works are lost, but later writers made some use of them in works written in the second century BC and after.

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Rome: An Empire's Story
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