IX
THE GENERALS

KEY DATES IN CHAPTER IX
89–85 BCFirst Mithridatic war, ending in the Treaty of Dardanus. Further wars with Rome followed in 83–81, and again in 73
88 BCSulla marches on Rome rather than give up the command against Mithridates to Marius, initiates a reign of terror, and then marches east
86 BCMarius and his ally Cinna become consuls after recapturing Rome. Widespread political violence. Death of Marius
84 BCSulla returns from the east to depose his enemies who had established themselves in his absence, and to make himself dictator. Imposes political reforms on Rome, resigns dictatorship, and dies in 79
73–71 BCSpartacus leads a slave revolt, which engulfed central, southern, and eventually part of north Italy until Crassus defeated him in southern Italy
70 BCThe consulship of Pompey and Crassus. The trial of Verres for corruption as governor of Sicily establishes Cicero’s reputation
67 BCThe Lex Gabinia creates a super-command against the pirates. Pompey appointed and clears the Mediterranean of pirates in just three months
66–62 BCPompey replaces Lucullus in the war against Mithridates, and then campaigns in Armenia, Syria, and Palestine, reorganizing Roman provinces and client kingdoms across the entire region
63 BCCicero’s consulship, the conspiracy of Catiline, Julius Caesar elected pontifex maximus
62 BCPompey returns from the east and lays down his command but the Senate is slow to ratify his settlements or provide land for his veterans
60 BCPompey, Crassus, and Caesar form a pact to pool their financial resources and political influence
59 BCCaesar consul. Then campaigns between 58 and 53in Gaul, with raids into southern Britain and Germany
53 BCDeath of Crassus following his defeat by the Parthians in the battle of Carrhae
49–48 BCCivil war between Pompey and Caesar ends with Pompey’s defeat at Pharsalus and murder in Egypt. Caesar becomes dictator
44 BCCaesar murdered on Ides of March by a conspiracy of senators, led by Brutus
43 BCMark Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian form a pact, and eliminate their political enemies, including Cicero
42 BCMark Antony and Octavian defeat Brutus and Cassius, ‘the Liberators’, at the battle of Philippi
31 BCOctavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra, ending civil wars

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