1 Among many others, Fouad Adjami and Bernard Lewis are prominent writers who claim that the ideals of Islam and democracy are not easily compatible. For alternative views, see writings by John L. Esposito and Fred Dallmayer.
2 For a comprehensive comparison of headscarf debates in several European countries, see Dominic McGoldrick, Human Rights and Religion: The Islamic Headscarf Debate in Europe (UK: Hart Publishing, 2006).
3 For an example of religious human rights in various countries, see Johan D. Van der Vyver and John Witte, Jr., eds., Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective: Legal Perspective (The Hague, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1996).
4 For secularism in Turkey see Niyazi Berkes, The Development of Secularism in Turkey (New York: Routledge, 1998); and Andrew Davison, Secularism and Revivalism in Turkey: A Hermeneutic Reconsideration (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998).
5 As an example, French President Nicolas Sarkozy met with Pope Benedict in September 2008 and discussed how the strict laïcité of France is incompatible with the Christian identity of the country.
6 John R. Bowen, Why the French Don’t Like Headscarves; Islam, the State and Public Space (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007).
7 Non-derogability needs further elaboration, especially in relation to this specific subject matter, because freedom of religion and belief, like any other rights, are potentially subject to restrictions for exceptional reasons.
8 On emerging Islamophopia in Europe, see Bruce Bower, While Europe Slept: How Radical Islam is Destroying the West from Within (New York: Doubleday, 2006); Ian Buruma, Murder in Amsterdam: The Death of Theo Van Gogh and the Limits of Tolerance (New York: Penguin Press, 2006).
9 Moustafa Bayoumi, “How Does It Feel to Be a Problem?” Amerasia Journal 69 (2001–02): 72–73.