Political Parties, Business Groups, and Corruption in Developing Countries

By Vineeta Yadav | Go to book overview
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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1Business Influence on Policy in the National Legislature: Developed and Developing Countries (6,099 Firms)15
Figure 1.2Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index [CPI] for 12 Selected Countries in 2000: 1(high) to 10 (low)16
Figure 2.1Legislative Rules, Business Groups and Corruption Levels: A Causal Diagram33
Figure 3.1Legislative Process for Bills in India65
Figure 3.2Legislative Process for Bills in Brazil71
Figure 4.1Legislative Process for Bills in Brazil71
Figure 4.1Survey Sampling Scheme: Multi-Stage, Stratified, Clustered, Random Sample Design83
Figure 4.2Frequency of Group Interaction with Political Institutions86
Figure 4.3Perceptions of Political Influence over Policymaking91
Figure 4.4Venue Choice by Business Interest Groups—Political Parties vs. Individual Legislators94
Figure 4.5Venue Choice by Business Interest Groups-By Sector95
Figure 4.6Allocation of Financial Donations by Groups—Across Parties and Individuals97
Figure 4.7Allocation of Lobbying Effort across Executive, Political Parties, and Individual Politicians—Executive98
Figure 4.8Allocation of Lobbying Effort across Executive, Political Parties, and Individual Politicians—Parties99
Figure 4.9Allocation of Lobbying Effort across Executive, Political Parties, and Individual Politicians—Legislators100
Figure 4.10Venue Choice by Business Interest Groups—Across All Institutional Venues101
Figure 5.1% of Political Spending Directed at Legislative Lobbying vs. Election Campaigns117
Figure 5.2Sale of Parliamentary Votes118
Figure 5.3Perceptions of Sources of Group Influence: Money vs. Information127
Figure 5.4Choice of Lobbying Tool Employed for Policy Issue Ranked #1 by Groups129
Figure 5.5Corruption Levels in India vs. Individual-Focused Developing Democracies in Sample146
Figure 5.6Corruption Levels in Brazil vs. Party-Focused Developing Democracies in Sample148

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