1. Executive Summary, Crime in Pennsylvania, 2006 Annual Uniform Crime Report. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the Pennsylvania State Police. Available on-line at: http://ucr.psp.state.pa.us/UCR/ComMain.asp
2. Public Law 571 was passed on October 4, 1994, and amended sec. 6120.
3. 545 Pa. 279 (1996).
4. Minutes of hearing, Philadelphia City Council, November 15, 2000. Hearings provided by the Philadelphia City Council Chief Clerk’s Office.
5. Beer 1977; Derthick 1999, 2001.
6. Baumgartner and Jones 1993; Chong 1991; Cigler and Loomis 1983; Feeley and Rubin 1998; McCann 1986; Piven and Cloward 1979; Scholzman and Tierney 1986; Walker 1991.
7. A growing number of scholars are investigating the same policy issue over multiple legislative venues. See Goss 2006; Pralle 2007; Manna 2006.
8. See Miller 2007. Legal scholars use the term federalization to apply to the growth of federal jurisdiction over the criminal law, particularly during the last 40 years. I use the term more broadly here because I think it offers a strategy for understanding crime policy in a more comprehensive manner and because it provides a valuable framework for research across a range of policy issues.
9. Lowi 1977; McConnell 1967; Riker 1964; Schattschneider 1960. See also Peterson 1981.
10. Schattschneider 1960, 2; see also Miller 2007.
11. Skogan 1981; Scheingold 1991; Miller 2001a; Lyons 1999.
12. See Skocpol 1999 for a related discussion.
13. See Olson 1965 on collection action.
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Publication information: Book title: The Perils of Federalism: Race, Poverty, and the Politics of Crime Control. Contributors: Lisa L. Miller - Author. Publisher: Oxford University Press. Place of publication: New York. Publication year: 2008. Page number: 201.
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