1. George W. Bush, “Remarks to the Nation,” September 11, 2002, www.whitehouse .gov/news/Releases/2002/09/20020911–3.html, see www.georgewbushlibrary.gov; Michael Isikoff and David Corn, Hubris: The Inside Story of Spin, Scandal, and the Selling of the Iraq War (New York: Crown, 2006), 42; Frank Rich, The Greatest Story Ever Sold: The Decline and Fall of Truth from 9/11 to Katrina (New York: Penguin, 2006), 57.
2. Dean Acheson, Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department (New York: W. W. Norton, 1969), 414.
3. Tony Judt, “What Have We Learned, If Anything?” New York Review of Books, May 1, 2008, 18.
4. Joan Hoff, A Faustian Foreign Policy: From Woodrow Wilson to George W. Bush: Dreams of Perfectibility (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008), 1–21.
5. Philip M. Taylor, Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda from the Ancient World to the Present Day (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2003), 19–24; Drew Gilpin Faust, “‘We Should Grow Too Fond of It’: Why We Love the Civil War,” Civil War History 50, no. 4 (2004): 380–81; Randolph Bourne, The History of a Literary Radical (New York: S. A. Russell, 1956), 188–89; Chris Hedges, War Is a Force That Gives Us Meaning (New York: Public Affairs Press, 2002).
6. Edward L. Bernays, Propaganda (1928; reprinted, Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1972), 159.
7. Bernays, Propaganda, 20; Philip M. Taylor, War and the Media: Propaganda and Persuasion in the Gulf War (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1992), 27.
8. Jeff Gerth, “Military’s Information War Is a Vast and Secret Mission,” New York Times, December 11, 2005; Richard Alan Nelson, A Chronology and Glossary of Propaganda in the United States (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996), vii.
9. Mike McCurry and Liz Rosenberg, “When It’s O.K. to Lie,” New York Times Magazine, February 21, 1999, 28; Propaganda targeted at the enemy is called psychological warfare or psyops; propaganda directed at allied and neutral nations is called information or public diplomacy. For definitions of overt (white) and covert (black) propaganda, see Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia,