Voices of the Code Breakers: Personal Accounts of the Secret Heroes of World War II

By Michael Paterson | Go to book overview

CHRONOLOGY

1642

Calculating machine invented by Blaise Pascal, a 19-year-old Frenchman. It is never built.

1693

Another, similar machine designed by the German Gottfried Leibniz.

1801

French textile manufacturer Jacques Jacquard invents ‘operation cards,’ an ancestor of the computer programme.

1821

Charles Babbage, a Cambridge mathematics professor, invents the ‘difference engine’ a series of calculating machines connected to work in unison, and based on Leibniz’ principles.

1834

Analytical engine also developed by Babbage. This is the fundamental concept of a computer with a programme and memory.

1890s

American Herman Hollerith uses Jacquard’s card system to automate the analysis of US census returns. He later founds IBM. Bazeries enciphering machine is invented by a French army officer. Enciphering machines equipped with keyboards.

1914

British Naval Intelligence begins intercepting German signals traffic, establishing Britain’s most efficient decrypting service of World War I. Its greatest triumph, in 1917, is the interception of the ‘Zimmerman Telegram’ from Germany’s Foreign Minister to her ambassador in Mexico, offering incentives for Mexican alliance with the Central Powers. This causes widespread antiGerman feeling in the US.

1918

Enigma invented in Germany for use in banks and other businesses.

1921

Washington Naval Conference. Japan is persuaded by the US and Britain to maintain a navy smaller than theirs. Anglo-American negotiators take a firm stance because decryption of a diplomatic message has shown Japan willing to compromise.

1923

Enigma displayed at the International Postal Union’s congress in Berne.

1926

German Navy begins to use Enigma, followed by German Army in 1928.

1929

Polish Intelligence begins analysis of Enigma after a machine is accidentally sent to Warsaw from Germany. US ‘Black Chamber’ decrypting department closed down. Yardley, the American decrypter of the Japanese telegram in 1921, writes a book, The American Black Chamber, about his experiences. It causes outrage in Japan and leads to the building of a powerful fleet. In 1934 Japan withdraws from the 1921 Naval Agreement.

1930

Japanese Government begins using Enigma.

1931

Japanese invasion of Manchuria, the unofficial beginning of World War II.

1932

Hans Thilo Schmidt, a German civil servant, begins selling Enigma secrets to France.

1933

Forschungsamt, or Research Office, established in Germany as signals intelligence unit, and attached to Luftwaffe. Polish cryptographer Marian Rejewski discovers the wiring layout for Enigma.

1936

-176-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Voices of the Code Breakers: Personal Accounts of the Secret Heroes of World War II
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 181

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.