The Lost Equilibrium: International Relations in the Post-Soviet Era

By Bettie M. Smolansky; Oles M. Smolansky | Go to book overview

Ukraine’s Economic Dependence on Russia:
Fuel, Credit, and Trade

OLES M. SMOLANSKY


UKRAINE’S DEPENDENCE ON RUSSIA

UKRAINIAN-RUSSIAN ECONOMIC RELATIONS ARE CHARACTERIZED BY Kyiv’s dependence on Moscow. Since 1991, this dependence has manifested itself in three distinct but interrelated ways: (1) Russia has been Ukraine’s largest supplier of fuel (above all natural gas and petroleum, but also nuclear fuel needed for Ukraine’s nuclear power stations); (2) Russia has been Ukraine’s largest creditor; and (3) Russia has been Ukraine’s largest trading partner.


Russia as Ukraine’s Largest Supplier of Fuel

In the mid-1990s, when Ukraine’s annual consumption of fuel stabilized at approximately 30 million tons of petroleum and 80 billion cubic meters (m3) of natural gas, its domestic production fell to 4 million tons of oil and 18 billion m3 of gas. This left Kyiv no choice but to import the rest. in line with the pattern established during the late Soviet period, Russia has been supplying approximately 90 percent of Ukraine’s annual oil and more than 60 percent of its natural gas requirements. The remaining 15 to 20 percent of the gas imports have traditionally been delivered by Turkmenistan, and more recently, Uzbekistan.1

Kyiv addressed its dependency in a February 1995 decree, entitled “Ukraine’s Oil and Gas Up to 2010.” The nation’s leaders concluded that Ukraine would still have to rely on its long-term suppliers, Russia and Turkmenistan, for natural gas. However, given the Russian Federation’s dwindling petroleum reserves, Kyiv would be looking for other sources, preferably from the “Persian Gulf basin.”2 Ukraine became essentially dependent on one, rather than two, gas suppliers in early 1997, when the Russian gas monopoly Gazprom obtained a controlling bloc of shares in the

-259-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Lost Equilibrium: International Relations in the Post-Soviet Era
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 393

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.