Legacy of Violence: Lynch Mobs and Executions in Minnesota

By John D. Bessler | Go to book overview

Notes

Introduction

1. Thomas O’Sullivan, North Star Statehouse: An Armchair Guide to the Minnesota State Capitol (St. Paul: Pogo Press, 1994), 1, 3–4, 9–10, 50, 62, 100; John D. Bessler, “The ‘Midnight Assassination Law’ and Minnesota’s Anti– Death Penalty Movement, 1849–1911,” William Mitchell Law Review 22 (1996): 577, 688; “Partial Autobiography of George MacKenzie” (unpublished manuscript obtained from Malcolm MacKenzie), 57.

2. Larry Millett, Twin Cities: Then and Now (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1996), 160–61; O’Sullivan, North Star Statehouse, xiii, 3, 12, 17–18, 21, 25, 27, 31–33, 37, 46, 50, 52–53, 69–70, 75–78, 80, 84; Bessler, “‘Midnight Assassination Law,’” 595–96, 599, 637, 697; Jane Davis, “Two Sioux War Orders: A Mystery Unraveled,” Minnesota History 41 (Fall 1968): 117.

3. William Watts Folwell, A History of Minnesota (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1961), 2:314; “Biographies of Black Pioneers,” Gopher Historian (Winter 1968–69): 20.

4. LaLonnie Erickson, “Minnesota Homicides 1985 to 1997,” Minnesota Planning (May 1999), 1, 3; http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/deter.html.

5. Lynching has, over time, had many definitions. Christopher Waldrep, “War of Words: The Controversy over the Definition of Lynching, 1899–1940,” Journal of Southern History 66 (Feb. 2000): 75–100. A lynching has been defined as “an activity in which persons not officers of the law, in open defiance of the law, administer punishment by death to an individual for an alleged offense or to an individual with whom some offense has been associated.” Ibid., 97. Another source defines lynching as “the execution without process of the law,

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