The Other Great Migration: The Movement of Rural African Americans to Houston, 1900-1941

By Bernadette Pruitt | Go to book overview

Introduction

In 1899, Edward Wilbur Hayes left his home, Big Sandy in Upshur County, Texas, to attend Wiley College, walking sixty-two miles to Marshall, the location of the Methodist Episcopal school. His parents, former slaves and sharecroppers, rarely had enough money to feed and clothe their family They certainly could not afford a train ticket for their son on the Texas and St. Louis Railway (Cotton Belt Route) or Shreveport line going east. Hayes nevertheless entered Wiley in the fall semester and for the next two years made his family proud, not only earning excellent grades but also putting himself through school. He graduated from Wiley with his teaching certificate in 1901, becoming the four-hundredth Texan to do so. For the next decade, Hayes taught students in a number of rural communities in the East Texas pine belt, including Mineóla in Wood County. In Mineóla, Hayes met student Marie Huellen, and later the two married. Hayes also entered the Methodist Episcopal Church (now the United Methodist Church) ministry. Soon Hayes made his living as a schoolteacher and minister, a necessity because of the growing family he had to support.1

The family eventually morphed into twelve, including ten children by 1920, with the last being born in Houston in the late 1920s. Like many rural families of color, the Hayes moved around often, from Mineóla and Orange in Orange County near the Gulf Coast, to Marshall in Harrison County, and from Marshall to Bellville in Austin County in southeastern Texas, looking for financial security. The family’s frequent relocations also reflected Rev. Hayes’s responsibilities as a Methodist pastor who, at the behest of the Methodist Episcopal Church, changed congregations every three to four years.2

The family nevertheless found it more difficult to make ends meet on Hayes’s earnings in rural Texas. Wife and mother Marie Hayes, in the early

-1-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Other Great Migration: The Movement of Rural African Americans to Houston, 1900-1941
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 456

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.