King Charles the Martyr, 1643-1649

By Esmé Wingfield-Stratford | Go to book overview

Majesty. And no doubt Cromwell did feel like this at the moment he said it, the Lord not yet having put it into his heart to act upon the text:

"Let his children be fatherless and his wife a widow." These are described by Herbert as halcyon days for the King. He was able to live in something reminiscent of his old style, holding audiences and riding abroad hunting. But never was he allowed to forget the real state of the case. He was guarded not as kings, but as prisoners are guarded. When he rode abroad it was on parole. While he slept, Colonel Whalley's sentries, relieving each other at regular intervals, guarded his every way of escape. The flattering attentions that he received from the commanders were all part of a calculated plan to induce him to throw the weight of the Crown on to their side in an unstable balance of domestic power politics. And if they found they could not use him, they would not hesitate to discard--and perhaps destroy him.


14
THE HEADS OF THE PROPOSALS

OLIVER Cromwell was playing a hazardous and complicated game, in which the time factor was all-important. He had to come to terms with the King, if at all, in the shortest possible time. For Cromwell can hardly have credited the Parliamentary chiefs with failing to perceive that their one chance lay in forestalling him, by getting the King to head a two-nation-wide coalition of Royalists, Scottish Presbyterians and English Parliamentarians against the now plainly threatened menace of a military tyranny. And on the other hand, the mere fact of the army commanders being known to be in negotiation with the King would be bound to give a handle to the Agitators for persuading the soldiers that the pass was being sold and the revolutionary cause betrayed.

The proposals of the army for a peace settlement were drafted with a promptitude that reveals the authentic Cromwellian touch. They were, after discussion in the Council of the Army, embodied in a document known as the Heads of the Proposals,

-203-

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King Charles the Martyr, 1643-1649
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Introduction v
  • Contents ix
  • Illustrations xiii
  • I - The Clinch 1
  • I - The Court at Oxford 3
  • 3 - Newark and Cheriton 7
  • 4 - A Desperate Situation 11
  • 5 - Adieu! 16
  • 6 - The King's Strategy 19
  • 7 - A Night March 21
  • 8 - Rupert's Flank March Through Lancashire 25
  • 9 - The Relief of York and Cropredy Bridge 30
  • 10 - Marston Moor--The Challenge 33
  • II - Marston Moor--The Decision 36
  • 12 - The Escape of the Queen 50
  • 14 - Second Newbury and the Cavalier Recovery 54
  • 15 - Artist as General 58
  • II - Defeat 71
  • I - Tertium Quid 73
  • 3 - "Three Things I Will Not Part With" 76
  • 4 - The Liquidation of the Primate 81
  • 5 - A Foredoomed Negotiation 88
  • 6 - An Irish Imbroglio 92
  • 9 - Prelude to Naseby 97
  • 10 - Naseby 102
  • 12 - The King's Cabinet Rifled 112
  • 13 - The King Takes His Stand 116
  • 15 - Meeting and Reconciliation 124
  • 16 - Last Days at Oxford 130
  • 17 - Hobson's Choice 141
  • III - Captivity 149
  • I - Confidence Trick 151
  • 2 - Third Degree at Newcastle 155
  • 4 - "Barbarously Baited" 159
  • 5 - Foreshadowing Martyrdom 162
  • 6 - A King for Cash 168
  • 7 - Holdenby Backwater 171
  • 8 - The Mutiny of the New Model 173
  • 9 - The Commission of Cornet Joyce 178
  • 10 - The King at Newmarket 189
  • 15 - The Fall of London 203
  • 16 - Cromwell on the Turn 208
  • 17 - A Darkening Prospect 219
  • 18 - Escape from Prison 224
  • 21 - The Engagement with the Scots 232
  • 22 - The Trap Shuts 244
  • 24 - Escape Barred 247
  • 26 - Jane Whorwood 256
  • IV - Martyrdom 285
  • I - The Train is Laid 287
  • 3 - Hurst Castle and Pride's Purge 295
  • 4 - Journey to Windsor 299
  • 6 - Conspiracy to Murder 301
  • 7 - High Court of Justice 308
  • 8 - By What Authority? 313
  • 13 - Cromwell Takes Charge 344
  • 14 - Preparation for Death 348
  • 16 - "Cruel Necessity" 354
  • Appendices 369
  • Index 381
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