An Atlas of African Affairs

By Andrew Boyd; Patrick Van Rensburg | Go to book overview

K. Pan-Africanism and Regional Unity

Pan-Africanism was conceived by people of African origin in other countries (L); the original conception has been attributed to Henry Sylvester-Williams, a Trinidad barrister. In the 1920s an American Negro, Dr W. E. B. Du Bois, became its chief exponent; he organized five international conferences, three of them in Britain. The movement steadily gained a following in Africa itself. Its main aim is the political and economic unity of the peoples of the continent; it is inclined towards socialism and 'positive neutrality'. Many political organizations in Africa are committed to it, though for some this is only lip-service. Three All-African People's Conferences (in Accra, Tunis and Cairo) have been held since 1959. Among governments, those of Ghana and Guinea have pursued Pan-Africanism most strongly. Their 'union' in 1958 (13, 19) was intended as the nucleus of a wider union, pending which it was to operate loosely; it was later reinforced by Mali's adhesion, and named the Union of African States in 1961.

Regional groupings appear a more immediate prospect. The Pan- African Freedom Movement of East and Central Africa (Pafmeca -- 27), an unofficial African nationalist organization, favours a regional federation, which might extend to Nyasaland and Rhodesia as well as East Africa, while also supporting continental unity. Most ex- French republics have taken stands against full political union; but, paradoxically, their common opposition to some of the Ghana- Guinea group's aims -- especially in regard to the Congo (Á, 23) -- has contributed to their forming an association known as the Brazzaville group (14). This group is seeking economic co-operation between members; two customs unions already exist, grouping the states of former French West Africa (minus Guinea and Mali) and of French Equatorial Africa (14-16).

At conferences of independent African states in Accra in 1958 and Addis Ababa in 1960, unity of action was affirmed, and the cause of Africans still under white rule was championed in more specific forms. In 1961, however, a rift appeared between the independent states. Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Morocco and the United Arab Republic, which had held a conference at Casablanca under the impact of events in the Congo, did not attend a later conference in Monrovia at which the 12 Brazzaville states were joined by Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Togo, Tunisia, Libya, Ethiopia and Somalia. But

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An Atlas of African Affairs
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page 3
  • Contents 5
  • Foreword 7
  • A. Population 10
  • B. Regions and Barriers 12
  • C. Languages and Peoples 14
  • D. European and Asian Settlement 20
  • E. 'Pre-European' History 22
  • F. Europeans on the Coast 24
  • G. the European 'scramble' 26
  • H. the New Political Map 28
  • I. British and French Heritages 30
  • J. United Nations Activity 32
  • K. Pan-Africanism and Regional Unity 34
  • L. Africa Overseas 36
  • M. Education 38
  • N. Health and Pests 40
  • O. Minerals 42
  • P. Transport 44
  • Q. Power, Development And Research 46
  • 1. the Maghreb 48
  • 2. Morocco and Mauritania 50
  • 3. Algeria 52
  • 4. Tunisia and Libya 54
  • 5. Egypt and Its Neighbours 57
  • 6. Suez Canal 58
  • 7. Suez-Sinai Conflict, 1956 60
  • 8. the Nile 62
  • 9. Egypt 64
  • 10. the Sudan 66
  • 11. Ethiopia 68
  • 12. the Somalis 70
  • 13. West Africa 72
  • 14. Ex-French Africa 74
  • 15. Ex-French West Africa 76
  • 16. 'Equatorial' Africa 78
  • 17. Commonwealth West Africa 80
  • 18- Senegambia, Sierra Leone, Liberia 82
  • 19. Ghana and Its Neighbours 84
  • 20. Nigeria 86
  • 21. Cameroons 88
  • 22. Two Congos 90
  • 23. Post-Belgian Congo 92
  • 24. Lower Congo 94
  • 25. Between the Lakes 96
  • 26. Ruanda-Urundi 98
  • 27. British East and Central Africa 100
  • 28. Uganda 102
  • 29. Kenya 104
  • 30. Tanganyika and Zanzibar 106
  • 31. the Rhodesias 108
  • 32. Katanga and Copperbelt 110
  • 33. Nyasaland 112
  • 34. Angola and Mozambique 114
  • 35. Malagasy (madagascar) 116
  • 36. South Africa and Its Neighbours 118
  • 37. Protectorates and S.W. Africa 120
  • 38. Eastern South Africa 122
  • Index 125
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