I WISH to thank the friends and colleagues who have helped to make this book. Rob Stones and Bryan Turner guided and encouraged my early reading and thinking about citizenship. Sid Tarrow sharpened my sense of social movements through his own research and writing, and offered advice on the research itself. Ivor Crewe reviewed and improved the first draft of the research proposal. David Sanders, Eric Tanenbaum, and Hugh Ward all participated in shaping the research design and the statistical analysis.
I also wish to acknowledge the support of the University of Essex and of the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). The prototype of the University's Research Promotion Fund bought out part of my teaching in 1991-2 to release time for studying citizenship; and a subsequent year of study leave in 1994-5 was spent writing the first draft of the book. A research award from the ESRC paid for a year of full-time research in 1993-4 for both myself and a research officer.
A particular word of thanks is due to my research officer and coauthor, Todd Landman. Since joining the project in October 1993, Todd has worked with unstinting energy and enthusiasm. Consequently, we were able to carry the research forward together, and collaborate closely in presenting the results. For me, it has been challenging and enjoyable work.
Finally, I wish to add a special 'thank you' to Clare Dekker, who has accompanied every step of this intellectual journey, and who never fails to bring good cheer.
Great Bentley, July 1996
I WOULD like to thank colleagues, friends, and family, who in their own way, all contributed to this book. In the Department of Government at the University of Essex, Hugh Ward, David Sanders, David McKay, Eric Tanenbaum, Neil Robinson, and Charlie Malcolm- Brown offered methodological advice, substantive critique, and a stimulating intellectual environment in which to work. I would also like to thank the University of Essex for its financial support and academic opportunities over the last three years.