Citizenship Rights and Social Movements: A Comparative and Statistical Analysis

By Joe Foweraker; Todd Landman | Go to book overview

6
Relating Citizenship Rights and Social Movements over Time

The previous two chapters have described the general contours of citizenship rights and social movement activity across the four cases under comparison. The argument now proceeds to address the relationship between rights and social movements, and deploys a variety of quantitative methods in order to examine this relationship both within and across cases. These methods carry the enquiry forward in three separate stages. First, the three rights measures (IPI, CRI, and the GAP) are correlated with the four measures of social movement activity (SMA and SR, SV, and SMA + SR) to reveal the 'first order' or descriptive associations that may exist between rights and social movements. Second, multiple regression is used to model the unidirectional and causal mechanisms that may configure the relationship both between rights and movements and between movements and rights. At this stage the scope of the enquiry is broadened to include economic variables in addition to the rights and social movement variables. Third, a non-recursive model of simultaneous regression equations is used to test the assumption that citizenship rights and social movements are 'mutually constitutive' (see Chapter 2), or, less boldly, that their presence and progress condition each other in mutual fashion.

It is well known that simple correlations cannot support causal statements of any kind. But the first stage of the enquiry does begin to build a general (if still hypothetical) picture of the relationship between rights and movements by referring the correlation results for the four cases to their respective institutional and historical contexts. Multiple regression, on the other hand, can support causal inferences, but both the quality of the data and the constraints of the methods suggest that such inferences must be drawn with due caution. Yet, in combination, the correlation and regression results do succeed in measuring the degrees of association and mutual

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