that FDR's legislative successes "made it much less likely that their achievements would equal or surpass his,"83 and surmises that "few would deny
that Franklin Delano Roosevelt continues to provide the standard by which
every successor has been and may well continue to be measured."84Rossiter
remarks that " Roosevelt's influence on the Presidency was tremendous."85 Berman observes that "FDR's legacies were numerous: the New Deal, the
institutional expansion of the presidency, increased expectations for government itself."86 Whicker and Moore mention that Roosevelt's "personal
and political style were so strong that he was able to mobilize public
opinions as an effective form of congressional leverage."87Seligman and Covington suggest that FDR created a condition of perpetual conflict
between presidents and their party members in Congress,88 but Neustadt
refutes that charge.89
Perhaps it is most appropriate to conclude that President Roosevelt
possessed a positive orientation toward Congress together with a proclivity
to use the veto if the decision on its employment by staff and agency
personnel was close.90 It is apparent that FDR's readiness to say "no deal"
to legislative proposals that he opposed gave impetus to his outstanding
accomplishments during the New Deal era and significantly shaped the
governing strategies of ensuing chief executives.
See Katherine A. Towle, "The President's Veto Since 1889", American
Political Science Review 31 ( 1937): 51-56; Joseph E. Kalenbach, The American
Chief Executive ( New York: Harper & Row, 1966); Frederick E. Taylor, "An
Analysis of Factors Purported to Influence the Use of, and Congressional Responses to the Use of, the Presidential Veto" (Ph.D. diss., Georgetown University, 1971); Jong R. Lee, "Presidential Vetoes from Washington to Nixon", Journal of
Politics 37 ( 1975): 522-546;
Gary W. Copeland, "When Congress and the President Collide: Why Presidents Veto Legislation", Journal of Politics 45 ( 1983): 696-710; David W. Rhode and
Dennis M. Simon, "Presidential Vetoes and
Congressional Response: A Study of Institutional Conflict", American Journal of
Political Science 29 ( 1985): 393-427.
Malcolm Shaw, "The Traditional and Modern Presidencies", in
, ed., The Modern Presidency ( New York: Harper & Row, 1987), 257.
Charles J. Zinn, The Veto Power of the President ( Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Government Printing Office, 1951).
Carlton Jackson, Presidential Vetoes, 1792-1945 ( Athens: University of
Georgia Press, 1967).
John L. B. Higgins, "Presidential Vetoes, 1889-1929" (Ph.D. diss., Georgetown University, 1952), 240.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: FDR and the Modern Presidency:Leadership and Legacy.
Contributors: Mark J. Rozell - Editor, William D. Pederson - Editor.
Place of publication: Westport, CT.
Publication year: 1997.
Page number: 179.
This material is protected by copyright and, with the exception of fair use, may
not be further copied, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means.