FDR and the Modern Presidency: Leadership and Legacy

By Mark J. Rozell; William D. Pederson | Go to book overview
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that FDR's legislative successes "made it much less likely that their achievements would equal or surpass his,"83 and surmises that "few would deny that Franklin Delano Roosevelt continues to provide the standard by which every successor has been and may well continue to be measured."84Rossiter remarks that " Roosevelt's influence on the Presidency was tremendous."85 Berman observes that "FDR's legacies were numerous: the New Deal, the institutional expansion of the presidency, increased expectations for government itself."86 Whicker and Moore mention that Roosevelt's "personal and political style were so strong that he was able to mobilize public opinions as an effective form of congressional leverage."87Seligman and Covington suggest that FDR created a condition of perpetual conflict between presidents and their party members in Congress,88 but Neustadt refutes that charge.89

Perhaps it is most appropriate to conclude that President Roosevelt possessed a positive orientation toward Congress together with a proclivity to use the veto if the decision on its employment by staff and agency personnel was close.90 It is apparent that FDR's readiness to say "no deal" to legislative proposals that he opposed gave impetus to his outstanding accomplishments during the New Deal era and significantly shaped the governing strategies of ensuing chief executives.


NOTES
1.
See Katherine A. Towle, "The President's Veto Since 1889", American Political Science Review 31 ( 1937): 51-56; Joseph E. Kalenbach, The American Chief Executive ( New York: Harper & Row, 1966); Frederick E. Taylor, "An Analysis of Factors Purported to Influence the Use of, and Congressional Responses to the Use of, the Presidential Veto" (Ph.D. diss., Georgetown University, 1971); Jong R. Lee, "Presidential Vetoes from Washington to Nixon", Journal of Politics 37 ( 1975): 522-546; Gary W. Copeland, "When Congress and the President Collide: Why Presidents Veto Legislation", Journal of Politics 45 ( 1983): 696-710; David W. Rhode and Dennis M. Simon, "Presidential Vetoes and Congressional Response: A Study of Institutional Conflict", American Journal of Political Science 29 ( 1985): 393-427.
2.
Malcolm Shaw, "The Traditional and Modern Presidencies", in Malcolm Shaw , ed., The Modern Presidency ( New York: Harper & Row, 1987), 257.
3.
Charles J. Zinn, The Veto Power of the President ( Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1951).
4.
Carlton Jackson, Presidential Vetoes, 1792-1945 ( Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1967).
5.
John L. B. Higgins, "Presidential Vetoes, 1889-1929" (Ph.D. diss., Georgetown University, 1952), 240.

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