Fools and Jesters in Literature, Art, and History: A Bio-Bibliographical Sourcebook

By Vicki K. Janik; Emmanuel S. Nelson | Go to book overview

When he sang, Grimaldi transformed his audiences into collaborators. "Hot Codlins," introduced into his act in 1819, recounts through numerous verses the travails of an old woman apple (codlin) seller, who warms herself with spirits; whenever Clown searches for the rhyme to end a verse, the audience supplies "Gin!" and then joins in on the chorus. Like the Clown he created, Grimaldi's song remained in the pantomime trunk long after he had left the stage. Serving as the Clown anthem, it was "demanded by the gallery every Christmas as an inalienable right and glorious tradition" ( Findlater139).


CRITICAL RECEPTION

Known as the "Michael Angelo of buffoonery,"8Joseph Grimaldi constructed a theatrical self that Regency audiences of all classes embraced as one of their own. During the thirty years in which he dominated the form, pantomime -- though fraught with hyperbolic characters and grotesque behaviors -- chronicled its age, with Grimaldi as chief satirist. Changing mores and audiences, however, diminished the Clown-dominated pantomime;9 yet absent the harlequinade, pantomime survived the Victorian years and indeed persists in our own time.

In an age with a mad king, with Napoleon making his way through Europe, and with sixty-seven nights of rioting in the theatre,10 Grimaldi conjoined with his audience in acknowledging the absurdity of modern life. With his audiences, Grimaldi laughed at "the owlish gravity of these times of solemnity" ( Miles 8). When we need a physic for these equally solemn days, we must look for Joey's descendants not on the stage, but under the big top.


NOTES
1
His father's family, originally from Genoa, included many dancers: "A long line of Grimaldis have successively ministered to the public gratification" ( Miles9). His father, a dancer and acrobat, was renowned for his Pantaloon.
2
Grimaldi performed the "desperate ravin" in the tragedy Ko and Zoa; or, The Belle Savage at Sadler's Wells in 1803. It was said of his death scene, "We do not believe the finest tragedian of the day can produce any finer effect or portray a more faithful picture" ( Willson Disher96).
3
See Findlater143-46 for discussion of these earlier clown types.
4
A broadside for the week following Thursday, January 31, 1828, announces "THE NEW PANTOMIME EVERY EVENING". Coupled with Harlequin and Number Nip; or, The Giant Mountain are, successively, School for Scandal, The Seraglio (opera), and Artaxerxes (opera), along with Katherine & Petruchio, Hamlet, and The Merchant's Wedding; or, London Frolics in 1638 (comedy). (Author's collection.)
5
But the audience for early- nineteenth-century pantomime was primarily adult ( Mayer, Harlequin10).
6
All references here are to the Scales text of Harlequin in His Element reprinted in Booth, 76-89.

-224-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Fools and Jesters in Literature, Art, and History: A Bio-Bibliographical Sourcebook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xiii
  • Acknowledgments xvii
  • Introduction 1
  • Notes 20
  • Woody Allen - The Clown as Tragic Hero 25
  • The Anthropology of Fools 33
  • Notes 39
  • Robert Armin 41
  • Notes 48
  • Archy Armstrong 50
  • The Badin 55
  • Lucille Ball 62
  • Jean-Louls Barrault 71
  • Critical Reception 77
  • Beckett's Postmodern Clowns - Vladimir (Didi), Estragon (Gogo), Pozzo, and Lucky 79
  • Jack Benny 85
  • Birbal 91
  • Selected Bibliographv 96
  • The Bishop of Fools 97
  • Note 104
  • George Burns and Gracie Allen the Jewish Vaudeville Tradition 106
  • The Camp 113
  • Canio-Pagliacco and Petrouchka - Two Contrasting Images of Pierrot 120
  • Charlie Chaplin 127
  • The American Circus Clown 136
  • Commedia Dell'Arte 146
  • Selected Bibliograph 153
  • Native American Coyote Trickster Tales and Cycles 155
  • Notes 164
  • The Drag Queen 169
  • Sir John Falstaff 176
  • Feste 185
  • W. C. Fields 194
  • Folly in the Enduring Tradition 198
  • The Fop - Apes and Echoes of Men": Gentlemanly Ideals and the Restoration 207
  • Notes 212
  • Gimpel 215
  • Joseph Grimaldi 220
  • Notes 224
  • Forrest Gump - Innocent Fool 226
  • Hamlet 231
  • Hephaestus, Hermes, and Prometheus - Jesters to the Gods 237
  • Note 245
  • The Heyoka of the Sioux 246
  • Clowns of the Hopi 250
  • Selected Bibiliography 253
  • Knaves and Fools in Ben Jonson 254
  • Buster Keaton 265
  • William Kemp 273
  • Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy Yin and Yang 281
  • Lear's Fool - (England: in William Shakespeare's King Lear: 1605 289
  • Loki, the Norse Fool 295
  • The Marx Brothers 298
  • Notes 306
  • Selecteid Bibliograpy 306
  • Merry Report 308
  • Paul the Apostle 316
  • Notes 325
  • Penasar of Bali - Sacred Clowns 329
  • Note 335
  • Pierrot - Dramatic and Literary Mask 336
  • Plautus's Clowns 343
  • Puck/Robin Goodfellow 351
  • Punch and Judy 363
  • FrançOis Rabelais 370
  • Martha Raye 376
  • Rigoletto 382
  • Schlemiels and Schlimazels 388
  • The Sleary Circus 395
  • Socrates as Fool in Aristophanes and Plato 400
  • Note 404
  • Will Sommers 406
  • The Sottie, the Sots, and the Fols 411
  • South African Political Clowning Laughter and Resistance to Apartheid 419
  • Ciritical Reception 427
  • Country Squires and Bumpkins 428
  • Selected Bibliographv 436
  • The Three Stooges 438
  • Taishu Engeki - Subverting the Patterns of Japanese Culture 445
  • Note 452
  • The Tarot Fool 453
  • The Tarot Fool in English and American Novels 459
  • Touchstone 466
  • The Vice Figure in Middle English Morality Plays 471
  • The Vice in Henry Medwall's Nature 485
  • Mae West 494
  • The Yankee 500
  • Zanni 508
  • Critical Reception 512
  • Selected General Bibliography 513
  • Index 521
  • About the Editor and Contributors 545
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 552

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.