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Understanding Society, Culture, and Television

By Paul Monaco | Go to book overview

social contract that treats broadcasting by broad consensus as a special case. True enough, in Western Europe broadcasting was opened to private ownership and competition during the 1980s.19 In the United States, some limitations on ownership of stations and some broadcast and cablecast practices were loosened. Yet nowhere is true deregulation of broadcasting, cable, and satellite being actively promoted, and nowhere are the airwaves truly free. A 1992 study by UNESCO found television not only to still be controlled directly by the government in 102 countries, but also concluded that "even in the most democratic countries, political authorities have never entirely relinquished their influence over the television industry."20 Worldwide, media freedom remains an entirely elusive and unfulfilled idea. Restrictions prevail both in the United States and abroad, and furthermore, cries for additional limitations on program content and broadcasters' rights are in vogue on the eve of the twenty-first century.


NOTES
1.
See, Raymond Moley, The Hays Office ( New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1945) and Gerald Gardiner, The Censorship Papers: Movie Censorship Letters from the Hays Office, 1934-1968 ( New York: Dodd, Mead, 1987).
2.
John Corry, "Fairness Most Foul," The American Spectator, November, 1995, pp.50,51.
3.
Neil Gabler, "Endangered Species," George Magazine, May, 1997.
4.
Richard Zoglin, "If Not the Jetsons, What?" Time, March 22, 1993, p. 64.
5.
Nick Gillespie, "Chip Off the Block," Reason, November, 1995, p. 7.
6.
Edward L. Andrews, "Court Upholds Ban on Indecent Broadcasting Programming," The New York Times, July 1, 1995, p. 7. A lower court had struck down the FCC's ban on these, broadcasts during the day and evening as an infringement to the rights of adults to view such materials, as reported in The New York Times, November 24, 1993, p. Al.
7.
Bill Carter, "Stern Reportedly Rules Out Late-Night Talk Show," The New York Times, January 5, 1994, C22.
8.
"Report: TV Ratings May Lure Youngsters to Racy Shows," Showbiz Story Page, March 26, 1997.
9.
Gillespie, Chip, p. 7.
10.
See the National Television Violence Study, Executive Summary, Vol. 1 ( March, 1996) and Volume 2 ( March, 1997), Santa Barbara, CA: The Center for Communication and Social Policy.

-97-

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