social contract that treats broadcasting by broad consensus as a special
case. True enough, in Western Europe broadcasting was opened to
private ownership and competition during the 1980s.19 In the United
States, some limitations on ownership of stations and some broadcast and
cablecast practices were loosened. Yet nowhere is true deregulation of
broadcasting, cable, and satellite being actively promoted, and nowhere
are the airwaves truly free. A 1992 study by UNESCO found television
not only to still be controlled directly by the government in 102
countries, but also concluded that "even in the most democratic countries,
political authorities have never entirely relinquished their influence over
the television industry."20 Worldwide, media freedom remains an
entirely elusive and unfulfilled idea. Restrictions prevail both in the United States and abroad, and furthermore, cries for additional limitations on program content and broadcasters' rights are in vogue on the eve
of the twenty-first century.
See, Raymond Moley, The Hays Office ( New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1945)
and Gerald Gardiner, The Censorship Papers: Movie Censorship Letters from the
Hays Office, 1934-1968 ( New York: Dodd, Mead, 1987).
John Corry, "Fairness Most Foul," The American Spectator, November, 1995, pp.50,51.
Neil Gabler, "Endangered Species," George Magazine, May, 1997.
Richard Zoglin, "If Not the Jetsons, What?" Time, March 22, 1993, p. 64.
Nick Gillespie, "Chip Off the Block," Reason, November, 1995, p. 7.
Edward L. Andrews, "Court Upholds Ban on Indecent Broadcasting
Programming," The New York Times, July 1, 1995, p. 7. A lower court had
struck down the FCC's ban on these, broadcasts during the day and evening as
an infringement to the rights of adults to view such materials, as reported in The
New York Times, November 24, 1993, p. Al.
Bill Carter, "Stern Reportedly Rules Out Late-Night Talk Show," The
New York Times, January 5, 1994, C22.
"Report: TV Ratings May Lure Youngsters to Racy Shows," Showbiz
Story Page, March 26, 1997.
Gillespie, Chip, p. 7.
See the National Television Violence Study, Executive Summary, Vol. 1 ( March, 1996) and Volume 2 ( March, 1997), Santa Barbara, CA: The Center
for Communication and Social Policy.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Understanding Society, Culture, and Television.
Contributors: Paul Monaco - Author.
Publisher: Praeger Publishers.
Place of publication: Westport, CT.
Publication year: 1998.
Page number: 97.
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