that included multiple earnings and careful distribution of resources. Women's work in domestic industry is given special attention because home work invariably was a part of the labor experience of most working women. The tenacity of home work focuses capitalism's pursuit of women as workers and the female dilemma of combining work and family. Chapters Seven and Eight examine women's response to labor organization and the reasons that labor unions sought to impose a regulatory presence on women's work lives. Results were a mixed package of benefits and liabilities as women were classified by gender into a special place in the labor force.
This study is an effort to make German working women visible within the context of their nation's economic and social history and, by doing so, to expand possibilities for comparative analysis of the impact of industrialization. It focuses women at the intersection of work and family. Although the most important determinants of women's economic lives were embedded in the industrial organization of work, women scrambled for ways to use the structure to create areas and moments of safety and compatibility. Both the limitations and resources contained in their connection to the family reinforced continuity. The causal links between family and work patterns are not always easy to disentangle, but women actively sought to assert some measure of manageability over both. Tracing their participation in the labor force indicates that women had more success in modifying their work options than in altering their family responsibilities.
It is important to recognize that this process of adjustment did not take place in a vacuum. There were strong cultural and political pressures impinging on women and on owners and employers alike to observe the implicit rules of patriarchy and paternalism. Gender division of labor permeated the organization of work and institutional measures to protect women from work, and influenced the ambivalence of labor unions toward women workers. Reinforced in familial gender segregation, the mutuality of the message was pervasive. It can be suggested that this ideology contributed to the persistence of traditional work forms for women in agriculture, domestic industry, and domestic service and extended with little modification into the factory system.
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Publication information: Book title: At the Very Least She Pays the Rent:Women and German Industrialization, 1871-1914. Contributors: Barbara Franzoi - Author. Publisher: Greenwood Press. Place of publication: Westport, CT. Publication year: 1985. Page number: 13.
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