The Legacy of Woodrow Wilson: American War Aims in World War I

By David M. Esposito | Go to book overview

crises were a chastening experience that left him all the more eager to stimulate the process of negotiation that would bring the war to an end before another such controversy should prove insurmountable -- and his tertiary responsibilities preclude achievement his primary ambition.


NOTES
1.
German naval officers estimated that it would take two hundred submarines to strangle British commerce; in 1914 Germany only had 28. Robert M. Grant, U-Boats Destroyed ( London: Putnam, 1964), 167; R. H. Gibson and Maurice Prendergast, The German Submarine Warfare ( London: Constable, 1931), 24-5.
2.
Gibson and Prendergast, Submarine Warfare, 22.
3.
For a complete explanation of contemporary maritime international law, see Coogan, Neutrality, passim.
4.
Tirpitz made his early fame as unalloyed supporter of battleship construction. Initially he had little faith in U-boats. Moreover, German submarine construction was barely able to keep up with losses, and only twentynine boats were on hand in January 1915, with another fiftytwo boats building. Gibson and Prendergast, Submarine Warfare, 26; Grant, U-Boats Destroyed, 29.
5.
May, Isolation, 116-20.
6.
Herwig, Politics of Frustration, 116-8; Walter Gorlitz (ed.), The Kaiser and his Court, trans. Mervyn Savill ( London: MacDonald, 1961), 63-4.
7.
Gerard to Secretary of State, February 4, 1915, FRUS 1915, Supt., 94.
8.
Press Conference 22 February 1915, PWW, LI, 288-305.
9.
Secretary of State to Gerard, February 10, 1915, FRUS 1915, Supt., 98-100.
10.
Wilson to Bryan, April 28, 1915, in FRUS: The Lansing Papers, 1914-1920 ( Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1939), I, 380. At that very moment, House was in Europe secretly reviewing peace options with the belligerents.
11.
Wilson's Address at a Meeting of the Associated Press, New York, April 20, 1915, Shaw (ed.), State Papers, 108-13.
12.
The wreck is now privately owned and over thirty dives have been made on it. Evidence suggests that the ship was carrying artillery

-36-

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The Legacy of Woodrow Wilson: American War Aims in World War I
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Copyright Acknowledgments v
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • Chapter 1 - Containment 1917 1
  • Notes 10
  • Chapter 2 - Most Terrible of All Wars 13
  • Notes 24
  • Chapter 3 - A Cruel and Unmanly Business 27
  • Notes 36
  • Chapter 4 - Not One Chance in Thousands 39
  • Notes 56
  • Chapter 5 - Toward an American Neutrality 61
  • Notes 80
  • Chapter 6 - These People Have One God -- Force 83
  • Notes 93
  • Chapter 7 - The Sun Rises in the West 97
  • Notes 111
  • Chapter 8 - Force Without Stint or Limit 117
  • Notes 129
  • Chapter 9 - Venomous Victories 133
  • Notes 141
  • Bibliography 143
  • Index 155
  • About the Author *
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