German naval officers estimated that it would take two hundred
submarines to strangle British commerce; in 1914 Germany only had
28. Robert M. Grant, U-Boats Destroyed ( London: Putnam, 1964), 167; R. H. Gibson and
Maurice Prendergast, The German Submarine
Warfare ( London: Constable, 1931), 24-5.
Prendergast, Submarine Warfare, 22.
For a complete explanation of contemporary maritime
international law, see Coogan, Neutrality, passim.
Tirpitz made his early fame as unalloyed supporter of battleship
construction. Initially he had little faith in U-boats. Moreover, German
submarine construction was barely able to keep up with losses, and
only twentynine boats were on hand in January 1915, with another
fiftytwo boats building.
Prendergast, Submarine Warfare, 26; Grant, U-Boats Destroyed, 29.
May, Isolation, 116-20.
Herwig, Politics of Frustration, 116-8; Walter Gorlitz (ed.), The
Kaiser and his Court, trans.
Mervyn Savill ( London: MacDonald, 1961), 63-4.
Gerard to Secretary of State, February 4, 1915, FRUS 1915,
Press Conference 22 February 1915, PWW, LI, 288-305.
Secretary of State to Gerard, February 10, 1915, FRUS 1915,
Wilson to Bryan, April 28, 1915, in FRUS: The Lansing
Papers, 1914-1920 ( Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1939), I, 380. At that very moment, House was in Europe secretly
reviewing peace options with the belligerents.
Wilson's Address at a Meeting of the Associated Press, New
York, April 20, 1915,
Shaw (ed.), State Papers, 108-13.
The wreck is now privately owned and over thirty dives have
been made on it. Evidence suggests that the ship was carrying artillery