Brazilian Culture: An Introduction to the Study of Culture in Brazil

By Fernando de Azevedo; William Rex Crawford | Go to book overview

CHAPTER THREE DECENTRALIZATION AND THE DUAL SYSTEM

The transformation of the social and economic structure -- The first rise of industry and the abolition of slavery -- The change in the political regime -- The Republic and the triumph of the federative principle -- The Military School and influence of Positivistic ideas -- The reform of Benjamim Constant -- The separation of Church and State -- The competition of the Protestant Schools and the influence of American pedagogical theories -- Decentralization and the dual system -- The federal system made up of secondary and higher education -- The Institute of Manguinhos as a center of scientific research -- The successive reforms of secondary education -- The parallel, irregular expansion of state systems -- The development of primary and normal school education in the States -- The progress of education in Sāo Paulo, the new center of the economic life of the country -- New higher schools for the liberal careers -- Isolated movements in the field of technical and professional education -- An analysis of the educational structure in process of formation -- Duality in the vertical sense -- The system of education for the people and that for the training of the élite -- Bureaucracy and stratification in the school system -- Reaction against the traditional school and the movement of reform -- New tendencies of pedagogical thought -- Toward a national educational policy

AT NO PERIOD of the nineteenth century after Independence were there prepared and produced so many important events for the life of the nation as in the last quarter of that century in which there took place the first rise in industry, there was established the policy of immigration, the regime of slavery was abolished, the organization of free labor was begun and, with the fall of the Empire, the experience of a new political regime was begun. It is in fact in 1885 that we find the first beginnings of the rise of industry and the period in which the industries of the country attracted the largest amount of capital of the whole nineteenth century was the decade 1885 1895. Of the capital invested in Brazilian industry down to 1920, as a census carried out in that year concludes, 23 per cent was invested in that decade, whereas before 1885 there had been invested only 10 per cent. and later, in 1895-1905, the percentage reached only 11, to go up again to 31 between 1905 and 1914, and to 25 between 1914 and 1920, from which dates the most important period in the industrial evolution of the country. This first rise of industry, beginning in 1885, followed immediately by a period of decline, was not sufficient to lead to a vigorous transformation of the economic structure and to introduce a new progress, but it did indicate that the population, growing, was moving toward the city and that the market for manufactured products whether Brazilian or foreign was tending to grow. The young country, bound to tradition and to the routine of agricultural work, was in the large centers for the first time expressing its desire to become industrial. The campaign which condemned slavery led, in turn, to the organization of free labor, favoring the immigration movement and allotting considerable sums to immigration. In 1876, immigration policy took on new life with the entry of 3,567 immigrants, of whom only 1,303 went to Sāo Paulo; in 1881 that province began its immigration service,

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