5
CONSTRUCTIVISM IN PSYCHOLOGY

FREUD AND JUNG

In the popular mind, Freud and Jung are still the best known figures in the world of psychology and psychoanalysis, although many psychologists today do not take them seriously. This is, at least in part, due to the fact that the theories of both Freud and Jung are theories which are not subject to empirical verification, and in the field of experimental psychology the ability to verify theories is considered to be of central importance.

Freud is popularly known for his emphasis on the importance of dreams and of repressed conflicts (sexuality) in many of the problems that men and women face. He also allowed no place for God.

Jung is more popular among many of those with religious leanings because he seems to have left room for God in a way which Freud did not. Jung was sympathetic to theism but not a theist. He had an outspoken sympathy for Christianity, yet he was also critical of it. He saw religion as the 'attitude peculiar to a consciousness which has been altered by the experience of numinosum'. Jung defined the term 'numinous immediate experience' as a happening which bestows on a person a sudden insight into another dimension and which affects the person's whole being. This is a positive view that religion gave humanity, an integrated view of the world and of ourselves in it, giving meaning and direction in life. Such experiences are the powerful, transforming experiences that lift a person

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What Is Truth?
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page III
  • New College Lectures and Publications V
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Dedication and Acknowledgments xi
  • Part One - What is Truth? 1
  • 1 - The Implications of a Denial of Truth--Or the Claim to Have It 3
  • 2 - Realism and Anti-Realism 12
  • 3 - Foundations Without Indubitability 29
  • 4 - Anti-Realism in Religion and Morality 38
  • 5 - Constructivism in Psychology 49
  • Part Two - There is No Truth Out There 63
  • 7 - Ontology and Epistemology 65
  • 8 - Hegel and Marx 74
  • 9 - Nietzsche and Ivan Karamazov 79
  • 10 - The Denial of a Real World 89
  • 11 - Post-Modernism 95
  • 12 - Post-Modernism and Self-Identity 105
  • 13 - Interim Conclusion 117
  • Part Three - The Centre Can Hold 121
  • 14 - The Path to Truth 123
  • 15 - The Kotzker 126
  • 16 - Soren Kierkegaard and Subjectivity 132
  • 17 - Wittgenstein and Perspicuity 141
  • 18 - The Sufis 151
  • 19 - Vaclav Havel and Living the Truth 156
  • 20 - Fear and Freedom 164
  • 21 - Bringing the Threads Together 182
  • Notes 190
  • Index 201
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