The Essentials of International Public Law and Organization

By Amos S. Hershey | Go to book overview
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

League of Nations. -- Alexander, The Revival of Europe ( 1924); Baker, The Geneva Protocol ( 1925), passim; * Baker, Woodrow Wilson and the World Settlement ( 1922-23), in 3 vols., passim; Brett,

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ment; the provision of an adequate living wage; the protection of the worker against sickness, disease and injury; the protection of children, young persons and women; provisions for old age and injury; protection of alien workers; recognition of the principle of freedom of association; and the organization of vocational and technical education.

In Art. 427 of the Treaty of Versailles are laid down the following guiding methods and principles: "(1) labor should not be regarded merely as a commodity or article of commerce; (2) the right of association for all lawful purposes by the employed as well as by the employers; (3) the payment of the employed of a wage adequate to maintain a reasonable standard of life as this is understood in their time and country; (4) the adoption of an eight hours' day or a forty-eight hours' week as the standard to be aimed at where it has not already been attained; (5) the adoption of a weekly rest of at least twentyfour hours, which should include Sunday wherever practicable; (6) the abolition of child labor and the imposition of such limitations on the labor of young persons as shall permit the continuation of their education and assure their proper physical development; (7) the principle that men and women should receive equal remuneration for work of equal value; (8) the standard set by law in each country with respect to the conditions of labor should have due regard to the equitable economic treatment of all workers lawfully resident therein; and (9) each State should make provision for a system of inspection in which women should take part, in order to ensure the enforcement of the laws and regulations for the protection of the employed."

In the application of the above principles, which have been aptly called the Charter of Labor, it is recognized that "differences of climate, habits and customs, of economic opportunity and industrial tradition, make strict uniformity in the conditions of labor difficult of immediate attainment."

The permanent International Organization of Labor is to consist of (1) a General Conference of Representatives of the Members, and (2) an International Labor Office. This Office is to be under the control of (3) a Governing Body. The Treaties also provide for the creation of a panel for the appointment of Commissions of Enquiry to hear and pass upon complaints against Members.

The General Conference shall meet at least once a year. "It shall be composed of four Representatives of each of the Members, of whom two shall be Government Delegates and the two others shall be Delegates representing respectively the employers and the workpeople of each of the Members. Each Delegate may be accompanied by advisers. . . . The non-Government delegates and advisers shall be chosen by the Governments in agreement with the industrial organizations which are most representative of employers or workpeople in their respective countries." (Art. 389 of the Treaty of Versailles).

Art. 390 contains the novel provision that "every Delegate shall be entitled to vote individually on all matters which are taken into consideration by the Conference."

The International Labor Office, which "shall be established at the seat of the League of Nations as part of the organization of the League" (Art. 392), shall be under the control of a Governing Body consisting of 24 persons.

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