The Essentials of International Public Law and Organization

By Amos S. Hershey | Go to book overview

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Law of Contraband. -- 9 A. J. ( 1915), 210-20, 456-61, 680-87; 13-15 Annuaire ( 1894-96), passim; * Atherley- Jones, Commerce in War ( 1907), chs. 1 and 3; Bar, in 26 R. D. I. ( 1894), 401 ff.; * Barclay, Problems, etc., 91-98, 168-69; Baty, Britain and Sea Law ( 1911), ch. 2, and Int. Law in S. Africa ( 1900), ch. 1; Bentwich, The Law of Private Property in War ( 1907), chs. 8-9, and, The Declaration of London ( 1911), ch. 2; Bluntschli, Arts. 801-14; * Boeck, Nos. 606-59; Bonfils or * 2 Fauchille, Nos. 1535-88; Brocher de. la Fléchère, in 31 R. D. I. ( 1899), 337 ff.; Brochet, De la contrebande de guerre ( 1900); Butte, in Procs. Am. Soc. I. L. ( 1916), 112 ff.; Bynkershoek, Questiones juris publici, lib. I, cc. 9-12; 5 Calvo, §§ 2708-95; 2 Cobbett, 555-88; Cros, De la notion de la contrebande, etc. ( 1905); * Dana, note 226 to Wheaton, 629 ff.; Davis, ch. 13; Despagnet, Nos. 687-90; * Dupuis, La guerre maritime ( 1899 and 1911), ch. 7; Elliot, in 42 Am. Law Rev. ( 1908), 578-97; * Evans, Cases, ch. 18; Fauchille, in 4 R. G. D. I. ( 1897), 297 ff.; 3 Fiore, Nos. 1591-1601, and Int. Law Cod., Nos. 1850-75; Flourens, De la notion de contrebande de guerre ( 1907); Fromageot, in 27 J. I. P., 29 ff.; * 2 Garner, ch. 32, and Prize Law during the World War ( 1927), chs. 13-14; Geffcken, in 4 Holtzendorff, 713-31; Grotius, lib. III, c. 1, § 5; * Hall, Pt. IV, ch. 5; Hall, J. A., Law of Naval Warfare ( 1921), ch. 7; 2 Halleck, ch. 26; Hart, in 17 L. Q. R. ( 1901), 193 ff.; 2 Hautefeuille, Droits et devoirs des neutres ( 1868), 65-176; Heineccius, De navibus, etc. ( 1740); Hershey, Russo- Japanese War, ch. 6; Heffter ( Geffcken), §§ 158-61; Historicus,

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British Admiralty Manual of 1888 (No. 84) states: "The carriage of goods conditionally contraband, and of such absolutely contraband goods as are in an unmanufactured state, and are the produce of the country exporting them, is usually followed only by the preemption of such goods by the British Government, which then pays freight to the vessel carrying the goods." In such cases the British Courts of Admiralty have been accustomed to award the original price actually paid by the exporter plus his expenses and a reasonable profit, usually reckoned at ten per cent. See the Haabet, 2 C. Rob. 174, and Evans, Cases, 687 or Scott, Cases, 958. In March, 1915 Great Britain adopted the policy of preëmption for both vessels and goods accused of violating the so-called blockade of Germany.

In 1896 The Institute of International Law recognized the right of preemption in the case of articles ancipitis usus. See Scott, Resolutions, 130.

Since preëmption is a mitigation of the rule prescribing confiscation as the penalty for the carriage of contraband, it is, of course, always open to belligerents to resort to it in all cases where the goods are undoubtedly contraband.

On Preëmption, see: Boeck, Nos. 730-31; Bonfils, Nos. 1314, 1411, 1583; 5 Calvo, §§ 2790-95; * 2 Fauchille, Nos. 1358, 1411, 1583; * Hall, 793-94-n. ( 8th ed.); 2 Halleck ( 3d ed.), 235-36; * 2 Kleen, § 230; Perels, § 46; 3 Phillimore, §§ 267-70; Pyke, Law of Contraband ( 1915), 225 ff.; 2 Twiss, § 146; Woolsey, § 197.

On Penalty for Carriage of Contraband, see especially; Hall, 247, Hall, J. A., Law of Naval Warfare ( 1921), 223-26; 2 Hyde, §§ 815-16; Lawrence, § 259; 2 Oppenheim, §§ 405 ff., * Pyke, op. cit., ch. 14.

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