of the war, a chronology of the war, military organization, uniforms, weapons, artillery, signalling, slavery, photography, intelligence, medicine, monuments, naval operations, transportation, rations, atrocities, living history, and the role of women.
Also useful is Frances H. Kennedy, ed., The Civil War Battlefield Guide ( 1990). Forty-two experts on the war provide good strategic and tactical views of sixty-one important military actions in twelve states, from Fort Sumter to Appomattox. Also included are brief chapters on wartime cartography, battlefield preservation, the legacy of the war, the military "staff ride," and the role of slavery in the war. This volume also has a complete list of surviving Civil War battlefields, as well as a list of twenty-two sites that have been all but lost. The battle summaries are more authoritative than those in Hicks and Schultz's book, but the tactical maps are poor.
Finally, stretching the definition of a reference work but nonetheless valuable as a resource for the war's major campaigns and battles is James M. McPherson, ed., Battle Chronicles of the Civil War ( 1989). This six-volume set provides nearly 100 profusely illustrated essays on important military actions by forty authors. All previously published in Civil War Times, Illustrated, this anthology is intended for a wide audience. Undergraduate students may find it most useful, but anyone seeking good overviews of the major military actions of the war, complete with excellent maps and helpful illustrations and photographs, will prize this collection. Some of the articles, originally published in the 1960s and 1970s, are dated, but the entire work provides a handy tool for readers desiring more than an encyclopedia sketch. Volumes 1 through 5, each devoted to a separate year of the war, form the meat of the collection, the essays beginning with Fort Sumter and ending with the assassination of Lincoln. Volume 6 provides biographical essays on Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, William T. Sherman, Robert E. Lee, and Thomas J. Jackson. A comprehensive index is included in volume 6.
Alexander Thomas B., and Richard E. Beringer. The Anatomy of the Confederate Congress: A Study of the Influences of Member Characteristics on Legislative Voting Behavior, 1861-1865. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 1971.
Amann William F. Personnel of the Civil War. 2 vols. New York: Thomas Yoseloff, 1961.
Boatner Mark Mayo III. The Civil War Dictionary. Rev. ed. New York: David M. McKay, 1988.
Bowman John S. The Civil War Almanac. New York: Facts on File, 1982.
Cromie Alice H. A Tour Guide to the Civil War. 3d ed., rev. Nashville, TN: Rutledge Hill Press, 1990.
Cullum George W. Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the U.S. Military Academy. 2 vols. New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1868.