the Confederacy, then the apparent staying power of Northern civilians certainly needs a similar degree of appreciation in explaining the triumph of the Union.
Two other areas that demand comprehensive attention for understanding morale are the connection between the war and the rise of mass industrial capitalism, and the war and the decline of public religion. Richard F. Bensel Yankee Leviathan: The Origins of Central State Authority in America, 1859-1879 ( 1990) has taken a number of the old responses to these issues and given them new life, but Bensel's work is really one of political economy rather than a history of the Civil War's impact on the economy, and though he gives the right signals, the path ahead remains to be explored. Similarly, Rose Victorian America and the Civil War is correct to see Northerners use the war to subsume the rising tide of religious doubt in the nineteenth century, but Rose is a cultural historian, and her handling of religious ideology is prone to generalization and fuzziness. Finally, the current explosion in studies of gender needs to move North, so that the sophistication with which Faust, Rable, Fox-Genovese, and others are currently reading the upside-downness of gender in the Southern Civil War roles can yield the same fruits concerning Northern men and women. It will be important, however, to keep such a focus from being too preoccupied with elite northeastern women at the expense of western farmers' wives, and to avoid a similar preoccupation with free black women while missing the even more desperate story of free black men. The questions are provocative, and the resources for answering them are rich. The answers may tell more than we ever could have thought about why the North--the civilian North--won the Civil War.
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Abzug Robert H. "The Copperheads and Civil War Dissent." Indiana Magazine of History 66 ( March 1970): 40-55.
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Baker Jean H. Affairs of Party: The Political Culture of Northern Democrats in the Mid-Nineteenth Century. Ithaca; NY: Cornell University Press, 1983.
-----. "A Loyal Opposition: Northern Democrats in the Thirty-Seventh Congress." Civil War History 25 ( June 1979): 139-155.
-----. Mary Todd Lincoln: A Biography. New York: Norton, 1987.
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