The American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research

By Robin Higham; Steven E. Woodworth | Go to book overview

slavery be abolished, but former slaves would be attending school, voting, and serving on juries.

The works mentioned in this piece represent the latest findings of scholars while raising almost all the questions that have been asked about emancipation during the last one hundred years. Hardly any suggest that all would have been well for the freedmen if the South had been left alone. But they do point to a growing impression: that while much more could have been done by the national government for the freedmen--economically, educationally, and legally--there were no cure-alls available. Freedmen were provided with limited welfare, opportunities for education, and citizenship and the vote, but their problems were far more complex than could be resolved within a generation. Almost everyone agrees that race was significant. But even if the freedmen had been white, as they were in Russia during this time, there still would have been monumental problems. Indeed the degree of economic and social progress among poor white Southern farmers during that era was very limited. Comparative studies indicate that Southern freedmen were in fact better off than those of other freedmen elsewhere. Of course, they were worse off when compared with other Americans. When compared with white Southerners of the same economic class, however, the difference narrows substantially, because both lived in an economically depressed area. Many recent works face the question of what was really possible for the freedmen given the total circumstances. Some, such as Peter Kolchin and Herman Belz, have gone so far as to suggest that despite almost universal agreement to the contrary among other scholars, for the freedmen emancipation and its aftermath was not a "Tragic Era." Despite drawbacks, largely caused by the nature of the nation, and to a degree of the Western world, emancipation in the American South, on the whole, was revolutionary because it brought both rapid legal and social benefits for blacks to establish their identity and their institutions.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Belz Herman. A New Birth of Freedom: The Republican Party and the Freedmen's Rights, 1861-1866. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1976.

-----. Emancipation and Equal Rights: Politics and Constitutionalism in the Civil War Era. New York: Norton, 1978.

Bentley George R. A History of the Freedmen's Bureau. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955.

Berlin Era, Joseph P. Reidy, and Leslie Rowland, eds. Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861-1867, Selected from the Holdings of the National Archives of the United States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982-.

Berry Mary Frances. Military Necessity and Civil Rights Policy: Black Citizenship and the Constitution, 1861-1868. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat, 1977.

Butchart Ronald E. Northern Schools, Southern Blacks, and Reconstruction: Freedmen's Education: 1862-1875. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1980.

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The American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Foreword James M. Mcpherson ix
  • Preface xi
  • Introduction Steven E. Woodworth xiii
  • Part I - General Secondary Sources 1
  • 1 - Surveys and Textbooks 3
  • Bibliography 9
  • 2 - General Reference Works 11
  • Bibliography 20
  • 3 - Bibliographies 23
  • Bibliography 27
  • 4 - Periodical Indexes 39
  • Bibliography 44
  • 5 - Genealogical Sources 46
  • Summary 52
  • Summary 52
  • Part II - General Primary Sources 57
  • 6 - Memoirs, Diaries, and Letters 59
  • Letters 73
  • 7 - Published Papers 75
  • Bibliography 83
  • 8 - Unpublished Manuscript Collections 85
  • Bibliography 94
  • Part III - Illustrative Materials 97
  • 9 - Maps, Charts, and Atlases 99
  • Bibliography 108
  • 10 - Photographs and Drawings 111
  • Bibliography 117
  • Part IV - Causation--Events Leading to the War 119
  • 11 - Slavery, Race, and Culture 121
  • Bibliography 128
  • 12 - Constitutional and Political Factors 131
  • Bibliography 141
  • 13 - Economic Factors 144
  • Bibliography 151
  • Part V - International Relations 155
  • 14 - Union International Relations 157
  • Bibliography 169
  • 15 - Confederate International Relations 177
  • Bibliography 184
  • Part VI - Leaders 187
  • 16 - Abraham Lincoln 189
  • Bibliography 200
  • 17 - Jefferson Davis 203
  • Bibliography 209
  • 18 - Union Civilian Leaders 216
  • Bibliography 225
  • 19 - Confederate Civilian Leaders 234
  • Bibliography 240
  • Part VII - Strategy and Tactics: Operations, Campaigns, and Battles 245
  • 20 - Eastern Theater 247
  • Bibliography 260
  • 21 - Western Theater 270
  • Bibliography 283
  • 22 - Trans-Mississippi Theater 287
  • Bibliography 295
  • 23 - War on Inland Waters 298
  • Bibliography 306
  • 24 - War at Sea 313
  • Bibliography 326
  • Part VIII - Conduct of the War 333
  • 25 - Leadership--Union Army Officers 335
  • Bibliography 341
  • 26 - Leadership--Confederate Army Officers 346
  • Bibliography 352
  • 27 - Leadership--Union Naval Officers 357
  • Bibliography 364
  • 28 - Leadership--Confederate Naval Officers 368
  • Bibliography 373
  • 29 - Modern War/Total War 379
  • Bibliography 387
  • 30 - Ordnance 390
  • Biblliography 400
  • 31 - Supplies 405
  • Conclusion 413
  • 32 - Intelligence Activities 419
  • Bibliography 428
  • 33 - Medical Activities 433
  • Suggested Areas for Future Research 445
  • 34 - Enlisted Soldiers 454
  • Bibliography 464
  • 35 - Prison Camps and Prisoners of War 466
  • Bibliography 475
  • Part IX - The Home Front 479
  • 36 - Northern State and Local Politics 481
  • Bibliography 490
  • 37 - Southern State and Local Politics 494
  • Bibliography 500
  • 38 - Industry, Agriculture, and the Economy 505
  • Bibliography 512
  • 39 - Northern Social Conditions 515
  • 40 - Southern Social Conditions 530
  • Bibliography 537
  • Part X - Reconstruction and Beyond 545
  • 41 - Southern Occupation 547
  • Bibliography 556
  • 42 - Economics 561
  • Bibliography 571
  • 43 - Emancipation, Freedmen, and the Freedmen's Bureau 576
  • Bibliography 584
  • 44 - Veterans' Organizations and Memories of the War 586
  • Notes 596
  • Part XI - Popular Media 601
  • 45 - Novels and Other Fictional Accounts 603
  • Conclusion 610
  • 46 - Films and Television 613
  • Bibliography 619
  • 47 - Musical and Narrative Recordings 620
  • Bibliography 657
  • Appendix - Publishers and Dealers of Civil War Literature 659
  • Index 679
  • Bout the Contributors 753
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