Revolution and Counterrevolution: Change and Persistence in Social Structures

By Seymour Lipset Martin | Go to book overview
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The Modernization of Contemporary European Politics

During the 1950's commentators on both sides of the Atlantic began to depict Western society by terms such as "The End of Ideology," "the post-industrial society," and the "post-bourgeois society."1

It is difficult to establish credit for the origin of this concept. Raymond Aron certainly deserves recognition for having presented it in the form which was widely followed by other writers in the West. See Raymond Aron , "Fin de age ideologique?" in Theodore W. Adorno and Walter Dirks (eds.), Sociologica ( Frankfurt: Europaische Verlaganstalt, 1955), pp. 219-233, and Opium des intellectuels ( Paris: Calmann-Levy, 1955), pp. 315-334. However, it should be noted that two major European scholars, T. H. Marshall and Herbert Tingsten, enunciated the same basic thesis without using the term in the late 1940's and early 1950's. Tingsten's early writings on the subject were presented in various articles in the Stockholm newspaper, Dagens Nyheter, while Marshall elaborated on the theme in his now almost classic essay, Citizenship and Social Class, first presented in 1949 and recently reprinted in his volume Sociology at the Crossroads ( London: Heinemann, 1963), pp. 67-127. See also Edward Shils, "The End of Ideology?" Encounter, 5 ( November, 1955), 52-58; Herbert Tingsten , "Stability and Vitality in Swedish Democracy," The Political Quarterly, 26 ( 1955), 140-151; S. M. Lipset, "The State of Democratic Politics," Canadian Forum, 35 ( 1955), 170-171; Otto Brunner, "Der Zeitalter der Ideologien," in Neue Wege der Sozialgeschichte ( Gottingen: Van den Hoeck und Ruprecht, 1956), pp. 194-219; Lewis Feuer, Psychoanalysis and Ethics ( Springfield: Charles C Thomas, 1955), pp. 126-130; Otto Kirchheimer , "The Waning of Opposition in Parliamentary Regimes," Social Research, 24 ( 1957), 127-156; Stein Rokkan. Sammenlignende Politisksosilogi ( Bergen: Chr. Michelsens Institutt, 1958); Daniel Bell, The End of Ideology ( Glencoe: The Free Press, 1960), esp. pp. 369-375; and S. M. Lipset, Political Man ( Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday, 1960), esp. pp. 403-417. Daniel Bell has written of the "post-industrial society." See his The Post Industrial Society (mimeographed, 1962). Ralf Dahrendorf describes comparable phenomena as the "post-capitalist society." See his Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society ( Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1959), esp. pp. 241-318, and Gunnar Myrdal, Beyond the Welfare State ( New Haven: Yale University Press, 1960). George Lichtheim has commented on many of these ideas under the heading of the "postbourgeois" society. See his The New Europe ( New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1963), esp. pp. 175-215; see p. 194.


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