Red over Black: Black Slavery among the Cherokee Indians

By R. Halliburton Jr. | Go to book overview

were canceled and Starr agreed to return home and live the life of a peaceful and law-abiding citizen. Starr accepted the provisions of the agreement and settled along the Canadian River near Briartown where he lived quietly until his death some twenty-five years. later.78


NOTES
1.
Zella Armstrong, The History of Hamilton County and Chattanooga Tennessee, vol. 1, p. 33. The majority of the captains who headed immigrant companies along the "Trail of Tears" were slaveowners.
2.
Carolyn Thomas Foreman, Park Hill ( Muskogee, Oklahoma: Star Printery, Inc., 1948), p. 131.
3.
John L. Springston, "Lynch's Mill Was Spavinaw's Name in Early Day History," Chronicles of Oklahoma 5, no. 3 ( September 1972), p. 326. Also see Phil Harris, This Is Three Forks Country ( Muskogee, Oklahoma: Hoffman Printing Co., 1965), p. 38, and Foreman Papers, vol. 62, p. 366, found in the Indian Archives of the Oklahoma Historical Society, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and hereafter cited as Foreman Papers.
4.
Norman Arthur Graebner, "Provincial Indian Society in Eastern Oklahoma," Chronicles of Oklahoma 23, no. 4 (Winter 1945- 1946), p. 326.
5.
Foreman, Park Hill, p. 23.
6.
Edward Everett Dale and Gaston Litton, Cherokee Cavaliers ( Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1939), p. 30.
7.
Grant Foreman, Advancing the Frontier 1830-1860 ( Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1933), pp. 53, 54.
8.
T. L. Ballenger, "The Death and Burial of Major Ridge," Chronicles of Oklahoma 51, no. 1 (Spring 1973), p. 102.
9.
George Morrison Bell Sr., Genealogy of "Old & New Cherokee Indian Families" ( Bartlesville, Oklahoma: Privately printed, 1972), p. 553.
10.
Norman Arthur Graebner, "Pioneer Indian Agriculture in Oklahoma," Chronicles, of Oklahoma 23, no. 3 (Autumn 1945), p. 241.
11.
Laws, of the Cherokee Nation: Adopted by the Council at Various Periods (Tahlequah, Cherokee Nation: Cherokee Advocate Office, 1852), p. 7. Many of the signatories of the new constitution were black slaveowners.
12.
Ibid., pp. 17, 18. In 1845 the penalty became one hundred lashes.
13.
Ibid., p. 18.
14.
Ibid., p. 19.
15.
National Archives, Record Group 393, Records of the US Army Continental Commands 1821-1920, 2d Military Department, Letters Sent, November 1834-June 1841, p. 218.
16.
Ibid.

-77-

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Red over Black: Black Slavery among the Cherokee Indians
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • 1 - The Origins of Black Slavery in the Cherokee Country 3
  • Notes 16
  • 2 - Early Cherokee Planters and Plantations 20
  • Notes 29
  • 3 - Maturity and Westward Movement 32
  • Notes 46
  • 4 - The Last Decade in the East 50
  • Notes 59
  • 5 - The New Nation in the West 61
  • Notes 77
  • 6 - Great Runaway and Stricter Controls 80
  • Notes 91
  • 7 - Missionaries and Abolitionism 93
  • Notes 103
  • 8 - The Prewar Years 106
  • Notes 120
  • 9 - The Civil War 122
  • Notes 136
  • 10 - Conclusion 139
  • Appendix A 145
  • Appendix B 181
  • Appendix C - A Cherokee Adoption Rite 193
  • Notes 194
  • Bibliography 195
  • Index 209
  • About the Author 219
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