Red over Black: Black Slavery among the Cherokee Indians

By R. Halliburton Jr. | Go to book overview

Not accountable for life health or Running away. . . . Freight for the said slaves $50 if delivered at Fort Gibson, $40 if delivered at Van Buren, $30 if delivered at Little Rock

Dated at New Orleans the 24th day of June 1845

Jas. W. Martin New Orleans 24 June 184531

Such agents firmly believed that slavery was a divine institution and an economic blessing to both master and slave. They contributed to the myth of kind and lenient treatment in their reports. These authorities were intolerant of abolitionist sentiments and forbade such teachings among the Indians. Missionaries and school teachers who were especially zealous in dissemination of antislavery doctrines often found themselves threatened with banishment from the Nation.32


NOTES
1.
Laws of the Cherokee Nation: Adopted by the Council at Various Periods (Tahlequah, Cherokee Nation: Cherokee Advocate Office, 1852), pp. 53-54.
2.
J. B. Davis, "Slavery in the Cherokee Nation," Chronicles of Oklahoma 11, no. 4 ( December 1933), p. 1066.
3.
Carolyn Thomas Foreman, "Miss Sophia Sawyer and Her School," Chronicles of Oklahoma 32, no. 4 (Winter 1954- 1955), pp. 397-398.
4.
Laws of the Cherokee Nation, 1852, pp. 55, 56.
5.
Some authors have incorrectly used other dates for the Cherokee slave uprising, while still others have confused it with a later and unrelated revolt in the Choctaw Nation.
6.
George Morrison Bell Sr., "Genealogy of Old & New Cherokee Indian Families" ( Bartlesville, Oklahoma: Privately printed, 1972), p. 524.
7.
Alvin Rucker, "The Story of Slave Uprising in Oklahoma," Daily Oklahoman ( Oklahoma City), October 30, 1932.
8.
Carolyn Thomas Foreman, "Early History of Webbers Falls," Chronicles of Oklahoma 29, no. 4 (Winter 1951- 1952), pp. 458-459.
9.
Rucker, "Slave Uprising."
10.
Laws of the Cherokee Nation, 1852, pp. 62, 63.
11.
Ibid., p. 63.
12.
Foreman Papers, vol. 112, p. 180.

-91-

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Red over Black: Black Slavery among the Cherokee Indians
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • 1 - The Origins of Black Slavery in the Cherokee Country 3
  • Notes 16
  • 2 - Early Cherokee Planters and Plantations 20
  • Notes 29
  • 3 - Maturity and Westward Movement 32
  • Notes 46
  • 4 - The Last Decade in the East 50
  • Notes 59
  • 5 - The New Nation in the West 61
  • Notes 77
  • 6 - Great Runaway and Stricter Controls 80
  • Notes 91
  • 7 - Missionaries and Abolitionism 93
  • Notes 103
  • 8 - The Prewar Years 106
  • Notes 120
  • 9 - The Civil War 122
  • Notes 136
  • 10 - Conclusion 139
  • Appendix A 145
  • Appendix B 181
  • Appendix C - A Cherokee Adoption Rite 193
  • Notes 194
  • Bibliography 195
  • Index 209
  • About the Author 219
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