John A. Peeler, Latin American Democracies: Colombia, Costa Rica, Venezuela ( Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985).
The classic studies in English on caudillism and the Venezuelan military are Robert L. Gilmore
, Caudillism and Militarism in Venezuela, 1810-1910 ( Athens: Ohio University
Press, 1964), and Winfield J. Burggraaff, The Venezuelan Armed Forces in Politics,
1935-1959 ( Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1972).
For a discussion of the negotiations and their outcome, see José Antonio Gil Yepes, The Challenge of Venezuelan Democracy, transl.
Evelyn Harrison I.,
Lolo Gil de Yanes,
Danielle Salti ( New Brunswick N.J.: Transaction Books, 1981), pp. 50-51.
Howard I. Blutstein, et al., Area Handbook for Venezuela ( Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977), p. 225. Robert J. Alexander places the PCV's
membership in 1961 at 40,000; see his The Communist Party of Venezuela (Stanford,
Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 1969), p. 138.
For a concise analysis of the role of university students and their interactions with
political parties in the period of insurrectionary violence, see Daniel Levine H,, Conflict
and Political Change in Venezuela ( Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1973),
especially Chapters 6 and 7.
Philip Taylor notes that the privilege of university autonomy was of particular
significance in Venezuela because of the size of the UCV campus and its location in the
heart of the capital. See his chapter on Venezuela in D. M. Condit, et al., eds., "Venezuela", Challenge and Response in Internal Conflict, vol. 3, The Experience in Africa
and Latin America ( Washington, D.C.: American University, 1968), p. 474.
For an account sympathetic to the left, see James Petras, "Revolution and Guerrilla
Movements in Latin America: Venezuela, Colombia, Guatemala, and Peru", in Latin
America: Reform or Revolution?, ed.
James Petras (Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett Publications, 1968), pp. 337-43. For an account of the period favorable to the government,
see Robert J. Alexander. The Venezuelan Democratic Revolution: A Profile of the Regime
of Rómulo Betancourt ( New Brunswick: N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1964), pp. 118- 36.
Steve Ellner, "Political Party Dynamics and the Outbreak of Guerrilla Warfare
in Venezuela", Inter-American Economic Affairs 34 (Autumn 1980):11.
Alexander, The Communist Party, pp. 80-81.
Taylor, "Venezuela", p. 485.
Richard Gott, Guerrilla Movements in Latin America ( Garden City: N.Y.: Doubleday, 1972), p. 149.
Talton Ray provides an interesting analysis of why the extremist strategy of the PCV and MIR did not produce more support among Venezuela's urban marginals. In
addition to the left's serious miscalculations concerning the barrio residents' "ripeness"
for revolt, the government's positive social measures were effective in weakening leftist
influence. Most important, urban guerrilla warfare proved to be a grave tactical error.
Feelings of hostility toward the Betancourt government's methods of repression were
more than offset by the mood of revulsion that developed in the barrios against terrorist