From Nuclear Military Strategy to a World without War: A History and a Proposal

By Roger Hilsman | Go to book overview

vitis); bleeding from the mouth, gums, throat, rectum, and urinary tract (hemorrhagic manifestations;) loss of hair from the scalp and other parts of the body (epilation); extremely low white blood cell counts when those were taken (leukopenia); and in many cases a progressive course until death. 5

A fission bomb exploded high in the air, such as the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs, blasts out the radioactive products that result from fission itself. The area covered by these radioactive products will depend on wind and weather conditions at the particular altitude of the explosion. Although an H-bomb exploded high in the air produces tritium, carbon 14, and certain other radioactive products, it is no more "dirty" with radioactivity than its fission trigger.

The surprise -- the unanticipated lethal effects -- came when the United States tested an H-bomb at Bikini atoll on March 1, 1954, the Bravo test in the Castle series in a surface explosion. It turned out that both fission and fusion bombs exploded at the surface pick up debris from the surface and make it radioactive. So bombs exploded at the surface will deposit both the products of fission and surface debris made radioactive by the explosion downwind of the explosion in a cigar-shaped pattern. The Bravo bomb had a yield of 15 megatons. Over onehundred miles downwind from the explosion radioactive "fallout" sickened the crew of a Japanese fishing boat, the Lucky Dragon, and one of the crewmen eventually died. The fallout from the Bravo explosion covered 7 thousand square miles in which "survival might have depended upon prompt evacuation of the area or upon taking shelter and other protective measures." 6

It was quickly realized that bombs could be deliberately made that were much, much "dirtier" than even this. Any U-238 that is present in a fission bomb does not split. But in the environment of an H-bomb, with its much higher temperatures and faster moving neutrons, U-238 does fission. It releases still more energy, and many more radioactive byproducts. So surrounding an H-bomb with a thick jacket of U-238 will not only contribute to the total energy released, but it will also vastly increase the radioactive fallout.

Areas dusted with radioactive fallout will be highly dangerous to all forms of life. Many people in such an area will die within several days. Others will develop cancers that kill them later. Still others will survive, but with genetic damage that will affect future generations. As Bernard Brodie, one of the very first academic strategists of the nuclear age remarked, "The Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs each destroyed a whole city. Now a bomb can be made that will destroy two cities -- one by heat and blast and the other, downwind, by radioactive fallout."7


NOTES
1
The report and the annexes are reproduced in Herbert York, The Advisors: Oppenheimer, Teller, and the Superbomb ( San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1976), 150 ff.
2
McGeorge Bundy, Danger and Survival: Choices About the Bomb in the First Fifty Years ( New York: Random House, 1988), 213.

-47-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
From Nuclear Military Strategy to a World without War: A History and a Proposal
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Notes xiv
  • Acknowledgments xv
  • Part I - The First Attempts at Nuclear Strategy 1
  • Chapter 1 - The Manhattan Project and Early Strategic Thinking 3
  • Notes 14
  • Chapter 2 - Nuclear Strategy and the Attack on Korea 16
  • Notes 27
  • Chapter 3 - New Look, Massive Retaliation, and Flexible Response 28
  • Notes 39
  • Chapter 4 - The H-Bomb and the Balance of Terror 40
  • Notes 47
  • Chapter 5 - The Debate on Nuclear Strategy 49
  • Notes 55
  • Part II - The Cuban Missile Crisis: A Case Study of Nuclear Strategy 57
  • Chpter 6 - The Crisis 59
  • Notes 70
  • Chapter 7 - The Significance 71
  • Note 77
  • Chapter 8 - McNamara II, the Schlesinger Doctrine, and Star Wars 81
  • Notes 94
  • Chapter 9 - No First Use, Counterforce, and Mad as a Strategy 95
  • Notes 103
  • Chapter 10 - The Breakup of the Soviet Union and the Bush -- Yeltsin Agreement 105
  • Notes 113
  • Part IV - The World Turned Upside Down 115
  • A Chapter 11 - Developments in Weapons 117
  • Notes 122
  • Chapter 12 - The Members of the Nuclear Club and Their Arms 123
  • Notes 138
  • Chapter 13 - Soviet, Chinese, and European Nuclear Strategy 139
  • Notes 147
  • Chapter 14 - Armageddon: Six Scenarios of Nuclear War 148
  • Notes 163
  • Part V - Arms Control and Disarmament 165
  • Chapter 15 - The History of Arms Control 167
  • Notes 179
  • Chapter 16 - The Prospects for Arms Control 180
  • Notes 186
  • Part VI - Why War? 187
  • Chapter 17 - The Social and Political Functions of War 189
  • Chapter 18 - Nationalism 198
  • Notes 210
  • Chapter 19 - A World Political Process Without World Government? 211
  • Notes 225
  • Chapter 20 - A Curious Creature 227
  • Notes 230
  • Part VII - Conclusions 231
  • Chapter 21 - A Long-Term Solution, a Medium-Term Compromise, and a Short-Term Stopgap 233
  • Chapter 22 - The Lessons of the "Small Wars" Since World War II 238
  • Notes 256
  • Chapter 23 - Humanitarian and Peacekeeping Forces 259
  • Notes 274
  • Chapter 24 - Conventional Forces for the Medium-Term Compromise 278
  • Notes 290
  • Chapter 25 - Nuclear Forces for the Short- Term Stopgap 291
  • Notes 304
  • Index 305
  • About the Author *
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 312

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.