From Nuclear Military Strategy to a World without War: A History and a Proposal

By Roger Hilsman | Go to book overview

Chapter 23
Humanitarian and Peacekeeping Forces

Our conclusion so far is that the United States should maintain two kinds of military forces. The first is a nuclear force sufficient to deter any country or combination of countries from launching an attack with nuclear weapons, to be dealt with in Chapter 25. The second is an antiescalation force armed with conventional weapons that can intervene to stop a rogue country from building nuclear forces and that can bring to a halt any wars that have the potential of spiraling into much bigger wars and thus into nuclear war itself. The nature of this second force will be addressed in Chapter 24.

The question in this chapter is where to lodge responsibility for two other kinds of interventions, if and when they are needed. The first is a purely humanitarian intervention. An example is the original mission in Somalia to protect the distribution of food and medical supplies. The second is a slightly different kind of humanitarian intervention, a peacekeeping intervention with military force to stop the killing and bring about peace in an ongoing conflict that has little or no potential for spiraling into a bigger war. The most recent example is the intervention in Bosnia in late 1995 and early 1996 by the United States, its NATO Allies, and Russia, in which Clinton sent a force with severely circumscribed rules of engagement.

The vast majority of interventions with military force in history had their roots in rivalries between states. Most of the recent military interventions by the United States have such roots. For interventions that are either humanitarian or peacekeeping, the best place to look is in the history of the United Nations. 1

The first thing one notices about the list of U.N. humanitarian and peacekeeping operations is how extensive they have become. U.N. forces are engaged in almost every corner of the globe. What is more, one of the first responses to

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From Nuclear Military Strategy to a World without War: A History and a Proposal
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Notes xiv
  • Acknowledgments xv
  • Part I - The First Attempts at Nuclear Strategy 1
  • Chapter 1 - The Manhattan Project and Early Strategic Thinking 3
  • Notes 14
  • Chapter 2 - Nuclear Strategy and the Attack on Korea 16
  • Notes 27
  • Chapter 3 - New Look, Massive Retaliation, and Flexible Response 28
  • Notes 39
  • Chapter 4 - The H-Bomb and the Balance of Terror 40
  • Notes 47
  • Chapter 5 - The Debate on Nuclear Strategy 49
  • Notes 55
  • Part II - The Cuban Missile Crisis: A Case Study of Nuclear Strategy 57
  • Chpter 6 - The Crisis 59
  • Notes 70
  • Chapter 7 - The Significance 71
  • Note 77
  • Chapter 8 - McNamara II, the Schlesinger Doctrine, and Star Wars 81
  • Notes 94
  • Chapter 9 - No First Use, Counterforce, and Mad as a Strategy 95
  • Notes 103
  • Chapter 10 - The Breakup of the Soviet Union and the Bush -- Yeltsin Agreement 105
  • Notes 113
  • Part IV - The World Turned Upside Down 115
  • A Chapter 11 - Developments in Weapons 117
  • Notes 122
  • Chapter 12 - The Members of the Nuclear Club and Their Arms 123
  • Notes 138
  • Chapter 13 - Soviet, Chinese, and European Nuclear Strategy 139
  • Notes 147
  • Chapter 14 - Armageddon: Six Scenarios of Nuclear War 148
  • Notes 163
  • Part V - Arms Control and Disarmament 165
  • Chapter 15 - The History of Arms Control 167
  • Notes 179
  • Chapter 16 - The Prospects for Arms Control 180
  • Notes 186
  • Part VI - Why War? 187
  • Chapter 17 - The Social and Political Functions of War 189
  • Chapter 18 - Nationalism 198
  • Notes 210
  • Chapter 19 - A World Political Process Without World Government? 211
  • Notes 225
  • Chapter 20 - A Curious Creature 227
  • Notes 230
  • Part VII - Conclusions 231
  • Chapter 21 - A Long-Term Solution, a Medium-Term Compromise, and a Short-Term Stopgap 233
  • Chapter 22 - The Lessons of the "Small Wars" Since World War II 238
  • Notes 256
  • Chapter 23 - Humanitarian and Peacekeeping Forces 259
  • Notes 274
  • Chapter 24 - Conventional Forces for the Medium-Term Compromise 278
  • Notes 290
  • Chapter 25 - Nuclear Forces for the Short- Term Stopgap 291
  • Notes 304
  • Index 305
  • About the Author *
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