Relocating Teams and Expanding Leagues in Professional Sports: How the Major Leagues Respond to Market Conditions

By Frank P. Jozsa Jr.; John J. GuthrieJr. | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
We obtained franchise values from three sources. See the Information Please Sports Almanac ( New York and Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1996), 573; Scott Fowler , "List Puts Panthers Among Most Valuable Pro Teams", Charlotte Observer ( 25 May 1997), 1A, 18A; Michael Ozanian, "Selective Accounting", Forbes ( 14 December 1998), 124-134.
2.
The ownership histories of the franchises in the three sports we extracted from James Quirk and Rodney Fort, Pay Dirt: The Business of Professional Sports ( Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1992), 378-478.
3.
See Foon Rhee, "Twins Sale on Agenda as Owners Talk Shop", Charlotte Observer ( 11 January 1998), 1A, 18A; "Sticker Shock. Best Seats at Astros' New Park Will Be Pricey", at cited 24 July 1998.
4.
Shea Stadium ranked twenty-eighth among MLB ballparks for the number of foul balls on the field or in the stands in 1997. For a complete ranking of ballparks see Mike McCarthy , "Fair or Foul", Wall Street Journal ( 12 June 1998), W7. For information about the Mets' new baseball only ballpark, see "Plans Progressing on Mets Stadium", at cited 27 October 1998.
5.
Rhee, "Twins Sale on Agenda as Owners Talk Shop", 18A. Between 1993 and 1998 the Expos were the most efficient team in baseball. The team spent $93.4 million on players and produced three winning seasons and reached the post-season playoffs twice in those years. The San Diego Padres, Houston Astros, Atlanta Braves, and Cleveland Indians placed second to fifth respectively in efficiency. The least efficient team was the Oakland Athletics followed by the Minnesota Twins and Pittsburgh Pirates. See two Editorials, "Montreal Knows How to Spend", USA Today ( 9 June 1998), 5C; "Setback for Expos", Charlotte Observer ( 18 September 1998), 4B. For the relocation of the Expos see Foon Rhee, "Expos in Charlotte? Team Not on Market Yet", Charlotte Observer ( 17 September 1998), 2B.
6.
Quirk and Fort, Pay Dirt, 398-399; Rhee, "Twins Sale on Agenda as Owners Talk Shop", 18A.
7.
Elizabeth Comte, "Sports Expansion Box Score", The Sporting News ( 12 March 1990), 12.
8.
Tushar Atre, Kristine Auns, Kurt Badenhausen, Kevin McAuliffe, Christopher Nikolov , and Michael K. Ozanian, "Sports, Stocks, and Bonds", Financial World ( 20 May 1996), 58.
9.
Attendance appeared in a 1997 memo from the American League and was obtained from the teams in the league.
10.
We calculated these percentages using seasonal attendance provided by the league.
11.
The seasonal attendance of the Rockies and Marlins we obtained from the league and teams.
12.
For the deal to sell the Marlins see "Smiley's Group in Position to Buy the Marlins", at the Worldwide Web site cited 19 November 1997; "Huizenga Negotiating to Sell Marlins", at cited 7 November 1997; Greg Stoda, "Sheffield Won't Help Florida Foot the Bill", Charlotte Observer ( 8 May 1998), 4B; "Marlins Plan More Salary Slashing", Charlotte Observer ( 7 May 1998), 4B; "Huizenga Says He May Keep Marlins Next Season", at the Web site cited 21 August 1998; "I Have a Handshake Deal. Commodities Trader Says He's Buying Marlins for $150 million", at cited 11 September 1998.
13.
For the values of professional sports franchises, see Scott Fowler, "List Puts Panthers Among Most Valuable Pro Teams", 1A, 18A; Michael Ozanian, "Selective Accounting",

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