Relocating Teams and Expanding Leagues in Professional Sports: How the Major Leagues Respond to Market Conditions

By Frank P. Jozsa Jr.; John J. GuthrieJr. | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
Leonard Koppett, Sports Illusions, Sports Reality: A Reporter's View of Sports, Journalism, and Society, 2nd ed. (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1994), 13, 14.
2.
Luke Cyphers, "New Parks Show Path", Charlotte Observer ( 21 April 1998), 4B.
3.
The Milwaukee Brewers and Pittsburgh Pirates, for example, play in small cities where local radio and television markets are less lucrative revenue sources. New ballparks with luxury boxes and club seats are needed to increase the team's operating revenues and profits. According to baseball officials such as commissioner Bud Selig, the Twins cannot exist in Minnesota without a new ballpark. Even large city teams such as the Detroit Tigers are building new stadiums. See "Loan Closed Tuesday to Finance New Tiger Ballpark", at cited 26 August 1998; "Report: Sumitomo to Bankroll Tigers' Stadium", at cited 17 March 1998.
4.
New owners purchased the Minnesota Vikings and the Florida Marlins, and eight NFL coaches were fired after the 1998 season. Consequently, changes in the management structure and operations of the teams should improve the performance and economic value of the teams. See "Cubas Waits. Smiley Will Decide This Week on Marlins Purchase", at the Web site cited 21 July 1998; "Huizenga Says He May Keep Marlins Next Season", at cited 21 August 1998; "I Have a Handshake Deal. Commodities Trader Says He's Buying Marlins for $150 million", at the Web site cited 11 September 1998; "Sold! Vikings Accept Red McCombs Bid for Ownership", at cited 6 July 1998; Observer News Services, "McCombs Buys Vikings", Charlotte Observer ( 3 July 1998), 5B.
5.
In 1996 the revenues from Camden Yards exceeded $21 million, the fifth highest in MLB. Even so, the Orioles began the 1998 season with an $8 million budget deficit due to high payroll costs and a $10 million payment for revenue-sharing. In 1997 the team earned $9 million, that is, $5 million from expansion fees and $4 million from playing in the post season. Thus in 1998 the Orioles increased ticket prices by 15 percent, an average exceeding $18 per ticket, the second highest in MLB. See Mel Antonen, "Baseball Fans Pick Up Tab", USA Today ( 22 January 1998), 3C; "Hands-On Approach. Politician Wants Controls on Orioles' Ticket Prices", at cited 24 February 1998.
6.
In 1998 TBS televised ninety Braves' games, thirty-five fewer than the previous year. TBS merged with Time Warner to become a basic cable network on 1 January 1998. Other networks broadcasting Braves' games include Fox Sports South, the Braves Southeast Network, ESPN, and Fox. See Paul Newberry, "Braves Coverage Diversifies", Charlotte Observer ( 22 March 1998), 14H.
7.
In March 1998 the American Basketball League announced that the Atlanta Glory would relocate to another site for the 1998-99 season. The Glory's revenues consistently fell below expectations and the team's financial performance was the worst in the league. The Glory finished 15-29 and averaged 3,898 in attendance per game for the season. See the Observer News Services, "Purdue Coach Steps Down", Charlotte Observer ( 20 March 1998), IOB; Marjo Rankin Bliss, "Final Four a Fertile Recruiting Ground for the Sting", Charlotte Observer ( 22 March 1998), 2H.
8.
Stefan Fatsis, "Los Angeles Dodgers Put Up for Sale, Marking the End of Family Ownership", Wall Street Journal ( 7 January 1997), B8; Editorial, "Deal for Dodgers Is Agreed Upon at $350 million", Charlotte Observer ( 5 September 1997), 4B. The MLB owners approved the sale of the Dodgers 27-2 on 19 March 1998. Thus, for $311 mil

-154-

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Relocating Teams and Expanding Leagues in Professional Sports: How the Major Leagues Respond to Market Conditions
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Introduction 1
  • Notes 11
  • Chapter 1 - Franchise Relocation, 1950 to 1977 17
  • Chapter 2 - Expansion Teams, 1950 to 1977 43
  • Notes 64
  • Chapter 3 - Franchise Relocation Since 1977 67
  • Notes 96
  • Chapter 4 - Expansion Teams Since 1977 101
  • Notes 130
  • Chapter 5 - Professional Teams Ranked by Sport 135
  • Notes 154
  • Chapter 6 - Alternative Leagues and Sports Facilities 157
  • Notes 169
  • Conclusion 173
  • Notes 180
  • Selected Bibliography 183
  • Index 203
  • About the Authors *
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