and their personal networks.
In response to prevailing economic, social, and political conditions, doubled-up homeless families were forced to develop alternative domestic structures and modes of functioning that they could not sustain permanently. Furthermore, doubled-up families were unable to maintain the other stable groupings and relationships required to ensure their continued participation in mainstream American life. Also because of the city's faulty administration of social services and the emergency shelter system, families who request emergency shelter are not placed in their former communities where they could maintain their previous ties as required by law. As a result, families who lack stable housing of their own are unable to sustain the social relationships and groupings on which their participation in mainstream American life would have to be based.
The recommendations that flow from this study are based in part on the social theory of vertical linkages in complex societies between forces operating both in the larger society and in local events. For example, federal policy and actions, or non-actions, related to the minimum wage and to public assistance and subsidized housing programs influence the behavior of homeless and doubled-up families in New York City. The absence of federal support for low-income housing and inadequate federal oversight of the administration of social programs can strongly affect the conduct of those programs and the personal decisions of impoverished families at state and city levels.
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Publication information: Book title: There's No Place like Home:Anthropological Perspectives on Housing and Homelessness in the United States. Contributors: Anna Lou Dehavenon - Editor. Publisher: Bergin & Garvey Publishers. Place of publication: Westport, CT. Publication year: 1999. Page number: 65.
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