Major role: very important to the commercial theme or layout; shown in foreground and/or shown holding the product and/or appears to be speaking.
Minor role: average importance to the commercial theme or layout; does not appear to speak or handle product.
Background role: hard to find; not important to the commercial theme or layout.
Achiron Marilyn. 1986. "Finding the Perfect Pitch for Women". Adweek, July 7, pp. 35-36.
Browder Anthony T., ed. 1989. From the Browder File: 22 Essays on the African American Experience. Washington, D.C.: Institute of Karmic Guidance.
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Chinyelu Mamadou. 1991. "No Color in Magazine Ads". Black Enterprise (December): 11.
Colfax David, and Susan Sternberg. 1972. "The Perpetuation of Racial Stereotypes: Blacks in Mass Circulation Magazine Advertisements". Public Opinion Quarterly 36 (Spring): 7-18.
"The Color of Advertising". 1991. Emerge 3 (October): 9.
"Commercials Crossing the Color Line". 1968. Time, October 25, p. 83.
Cox Keith. 1970. "Social Effects of Integrated Advertising". Journal of Advertising Research 10 (April): 41-44.
Culley James, and Rex Bennett. 1976. "Selling Women, Selling Blacks". Journal of Communications 26 (Autumn): 160-74.
Davis Richard A. 1987. "Television Commercials and the Management of Spoiled Identity". Western Journal of Black Studies 11 (Summer): 59-63.
Djata. 1987. "Madison Avenue Blindly Ignores the Black Consumer". Business and Society Review 60 (Winter): 9-13.
Dominick Joseph, and Bradley Greenberg. 1970. "Three Seasons of Blacks on Television". Journal of Advertising 10 (April): 21-27.
Edwards Audrey. 1993. "From Aunt Jemima to Anita Hill: Media's Split Image of Black Women". Media Studies Journal 7 (Winter/Spring): 215-22.
Foote Cone, and Belding. 1970. Integrated Advertising: A Synthesis of Published Research and Opinion. Foote, Cone and Belding Research Department.
Gardner Marilyn, and Hy Gardner. 1983. "Glad You Asked That". Knoxville NewsSentinel, March 20, p. 14.
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Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Publication information: Book title: Aunt Jemima, Uncle Ben, and Rastus:Blacks in Advertising, Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow. Contributors: Marilyn Kern-Foxworth - Author. Publisher: Praeger. Place of publication: Westport, CT. Publication year: 1994. Page number: 146.
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