Schooling the Poor: A Social Inquiry into the American Educational Experience

By Stanley William Rothstein | Go to book overview

of society. This indoctrination was one of schooling's most important functions in the nineteenth century.

To summarize, many of the organizational forms and practices of public schools were in existence in the 1800s and earlier. The pressing concerns associated with schooling pauper children, the high costs of educating the children of the common folk had lost none of their immediacy in the twentieth century. Structures persisted, now obvious, now less so, forming rigid practices that shaped the ever-larger urban school districts. Education continued to be an onerous, unpleasant experience for most youngsters; the inflexible routines and punishment syndromes survived in spite of the changes wrought by new generations of students and technological revolutions. Authoritarianism continued to dominate the organizational practices of urban schools. Education could no longer resist or deny the demands of overcrowded, impersonal institutions; it could not escape from its past history and culture as long as the individual student was denied his worth and capabilities and submerged in an impersonal organizational ethos in order to improve the efficiency of indoctrination efforts and the cost-efficiency of the system.


NOTES
1.
Stanley K. Schultz, The Culture Factory: Boston Public Schools 1789-1860. ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1973), pp. 261-63; see also Lawrence A. Cremin , Traditions of American Education ( New York: Vintage Books, 1964), pp. 33-37; and Carl E. Kaestle and Maris A. Vonovskis, Education and Social Change in Nineteenth Century Massachusetts ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980).
2.
David Rothman, Discovery of the Asylum ( Boston, Mass.: Little, Brown, 1971), pp. 14-15.
3.
Schultz, The Culture Factory, pp. 243-46; see also Ira Katznelson and Margaret Weir, Schooling for All: Class, Race, and the Decline of the Democratic Ideal ( New York: Basic Books, 1985), pp. 3-18.
4.
Franklin Trollope, Domestic Manners of Americans ( New York: Knopf, 1949), pp. 212-13; see also Basil Bernstein, Theoretical Studies Towards a Sociology of Language, Volume 1, Class, Codes, and Control ( London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1975), pp. 121-23.
5.
Robert Berthoff, An Unsettled People: Social Order and Disorder in American History ( New York: Harper & Row, 1971), pp. 212-13; see also David Tyack , The One Best System: A History of American Urban Education ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1974). pp. 9-10.
6.
Ellwood P. Cubberley, Public Education in the United States ( Cambridge, Mass.: Houghton-Mifflin, 1963), pp. 120-36.
7.
Nathan Edwards and Horace G. Richey, The School in the American Social Order ( Boston, Mass.: Houghton-Mifflin, 1963), pp. 237-38.
8.
Cubberley, Public Education in the United States pp. 133-34.

-24-

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Schooling the Poor: A Social Inquiry into the American Educational Experience
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Foreword ix
  • Preface xiii
  • 1 - Pauper Schools 1
  • Notes 24
  • 2 - Houses of Confinement 27
  • Notes 42
  • 3 - Schooling the Poor 45
  • 4 - Organizational Perspectives 61
  • Notes 76
  • 5 - The Birth of Modern Schools 79
  • Notes 95
  • 6 - New Divisions: The Emergence of the High School 97
  • Notes 115
  • 7 - Agents of the State: Ambivalence in the Teacher's Position 117
  • Notes 139
  • 8 - The Other Side of Segregation: Ethnographic Glimpses of an Inner City Junior High School 143
  • Notes 166
  • 9 - Language and Pedagogy 169
  • Notes 183
  • Selected Bibliography 185
  • Index 187
  • About the Author 191
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