Schooling the Poor: A Social Inquiry into the American Educational Experience

By Stanley William Rothstein | Go to book overview

those whose children were pushed out in the previous methods of appraisal.

The forces of school reform had converged their efforts on the problems of governance, cost-effectiveness, and accountability during the nineteenth century. An entire system devoted to stigmatizing pauper boys originally sought to economize and standardize schoolwork while supporting the infamous Lancastrian schools. A lack of tolerance between the propertied classes and the growing immigrant and urban poor led to the establishment of these schools and to severe regimentation and punishment practices. The common schools then emerged from the ashes of these charity schools, crowding children into congested schools and tightly controlling their bodily movements and their thoughts. Their social backgrounds were disparaged and their languages and cultures demeaned. At the end of the nineteenth century and well into the twentieth, the pedagogic practices of rote learning and military discipline still dominated classroom life.


NOTES
1.
John Dewey, Experience and Education ( New York: Macmillan, 1938), pp. 66-67; Sol Cohen, Progressive and Urban School Reform: The Public Education Association of New York City: 1895-1954 ( New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1963), chap. 1, 2.
2.
John Dewey, Experience and Education, pp. 337-41; John Dewey, The School and Society ( Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1915), pp. 9-11.
3.
John Dewey, Democracy and Education ( New York: Macmillan, 1933), pp. 225-30.
4.
Ibid., pp. 214-17; John Dewey, "An Undemocratic Proposal," in American Education and Vocationalism: A Documentary History, 1870-1970 ( New York: Teachers College Press, 1974), pp. 142-48.
5.
Dewey, Democracy and Education, pp. 244-47; John Dewey, "A Policy of Industrial Education," New Republic 1 ( December 19, 1914): 12-13.
6.
Michael B. Katz, Class, Bureaucracy and Schools ( New York: Praeger, 1972), pp. 113-25.
7.
Charles J. Karier, Foundations of Education: Dissenting Views ( New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1974), pp. 44-53; see Raymond Callahan, Education and the Cult of Efficiency ( Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1962) for a discussion of educational thinking during this period.
8.
Karier, Foundations of Education: Dissenting Views, pp. 50-52; Anthony Platt , The Child Savers: The Invention of Delinquency ( Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1969), pp. 97-99; Edward Thorndike, Educational Psychology, Briefer Course ( New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1914), pp. 348-52.
9.
Peter De Boer, "A History of the Early Compulsory School Attendance Legislation in Illinois," cited in Ira Katznelson and Margaret Weir, Schooling for All:Class, Race, and the Decline of the Democratic Ideal

-95-

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Schooling the Poor: A Social Inquiry into the American Educational Experience
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Series Foreword ix
  • Preface xiii
  • 1 - Pauper Schools 1
  • Notes 24
  • 2 - Houses of Confinement 27
  • Notes 42
  • 3 - Schooling the Poor 45
  • 4 - Organizational Perspectives 61
  • Notes 76
  • 5 - The Birth of Modern Schools 79
  • Notes 95
  • 6 - New Divisions: The Emergence of the High School 97
  • Notes 115
  • 7 - Agents of the State: Ambivalence in the Teacher's Position 117
  • Notes 139
  • 8 - The Other Side of Segregation: Ethnographic Glimpses of an Inner City Junior High School 143
  • Notes 166
  • 9 - Language and Pedagogy 169
  • Notes 183
  • Selected Bibliography 185
  • Index 187
  • About the Author 191
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