those whose children were pushed out in the previous methods of
The forces of school reform had converged their efforts on the
problems of governance, cost-effectiveness, and accountability during
the nineteenth century. An entire system devoted to stigmatizing pauper
boys originally sought to economize and standardize schoolwork while
supporting the infamous Lancastrian schools. A lack of tolerance
between the propertied classes and the growing immigrant and urban
poor led to the establishment of these schools and to severe regimentation and punishment practices. The common schools then emerged
from the ashes of these charity schools, crowding children into congested schools and tightly controlling their bodily movements and their
thoughts. Their social backgrounds were disparaged and their languages
and cultures demeaned. At the end of the nineteenth century and well
into the twentieth, the pedagogic practices of rote learning and military
discipline still dominated classroom life.
John Dewey, Experience and Education ( New York: Macmillan, 1938), pp. 66-67; Sol Cohen, Progressive and Urban School Reform: The Public Education
Association of New York City: 1895-1954 ( New York: Teachers College, Columbia
University, 1963), chap. 1, 2.
John Dewey, Experience and Education, pp. 337-41; John Dewey, The
School and Society ( Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1915), pp. 9-11.
John Dewey, Democracy and Education ( New York: Macmillan, 1933), pp. 225-30.
4. Ibid., pp. 214-17; John Dewey, "An Undemocratic Proposal," in American
Education and Vocationalism: A Documentary History, 1870-1970 ( New York: Teachers College Press, 1974), pp. 142-48. 5.
Dewey, Democracy and Education, pp. 244-47; John Dewey, "A Policy of
Industrial Education," New Republic 1 ( December 19, 1914): 12-13.
Michael B. Katz, Class, Bureaucracy and Schools ( New York: Praeger, 1972), pp. 113-25.
Charles J. Karier, Foundations of Education: Dissenting Views ( New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1974), pp. 44-53; see Raymond Callahan, Education and the
Cult of Efficiency ( Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1962) for a discussion of
educational thinking during this period.
Karier, Foundations of Education: Dissenting Views, pp. 50-52; Anthony Platt
, The Child Savers: The Invention of Delinquency ( Chicago, Ill.: University of
Chicago Press, 1969), pp. 97-99; Edward Thorndike, Educational Psychology, Briefer
Course ( New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1914), pp. 348-52.
Peter De Boer, "A History of the Early Compulsory School Attendance
Legislation in Illinois," cited in Ira Katznelson and
Margaret Weir, Schooling for All:Class, Race, and the Decline of the Democratic Ideal
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Schooling the Poor:A Social Inquiry into the American Educational Experience.
Contributors: Stanley William Rothstein - Author.
Publisher: Bergin & Garvey.
Place of publication: Westport, CT.
Publication year: 1994.
Page number: 95.
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