The need to assure homogeneous and orthodox schoolwork forces
educational systems to move toward standardized training for both
teachers and their students. Standardized curriculums, pedagogic
methods, and tests are used to measure students against one another. The
tools of teaching that the educational system uses are not only aids in the
performance of pedagogic action but also ways of limiting the goals,
perspectives, and content of classroom work. Textbooks, syllabuses,
manuals all have the effect of unifying what is taught in different
classrooms by different teachers. The need to codify and systematize the
pedagogic communication and urban school culture is conditioned by
the demands for homogeneity and orthodoxy in increasingly strained,
mass societies. All learning in urban educational systems is done within
the framework of an essentially apprenticeship system in which the
student is socialized out of his/her ignorant condition over a period of
many years. This binds the graduates, teachers, and students to the
educational system and to the economic and social system.
The institutionalization of modern pedagogic action is characterized
by obsessive concern with reproduction.
29 There is an inadequacy of
research training and inquiry methods up and down the grade system.
There is a programming of the norms of research and the objects of
inquiry is that the interests of the status quo are served. Modern
educational systems are relatively autonomous institutions, monopolizing the legitimate use of symbolic violence and serving groups or
classes whose cultural arbitrariness they reproduce.
Pierre Bourdieu and
Jean-Claude Passeron, Reproduction in Education,
Society and Culture ( London: Sage Publications, 1977), pp. 31-35.
Stanley W. Rothstein, "Symbolic Violence: The Disappearance of the
Individual in Marxist Thought," Interchange: A Quarterly Review of Education 22
Alfred Schutz, Collected Papers: Volume 1 ( The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1962), pp. 45-49; Alexandre Kojeve, "Lacan and the Discourse of the Other," in Speech and Language in Psychoanalysis, trans.
Anthony Wilden. ( Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989), pp. 192-96.
Steven Smith, Reading Althusser: An Essay on Structural Marxism ( Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1984), pp. 106-8; Lacan, Speech and Language in
Psychoanalysis, pp. 290-91.
Pierre Bourdieu, The Inheritors: French Students and Their Relation to
Culture ( Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1979), pp. 1-28.
Herbert Gintis and
Samuel Bowles, Schooling in Capitalist America ( New
York: Basic Books, 1976), pp. 53-55; Ira Katznelson and
Margaret Weir, Schoolingfor All: Class, Race, and the Decline of the Democratic Ideal
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Schooling the Poor:A Social Inquiry into the American Educational Experience.
Contributors: Stanley William Rothstein - Author.
Publisher: Bergin & Garvey.
Place of publication: Westport, CT.
Publication year: 1994.
Page number: 139.
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