Encyclopedia of American Parties, Campaigns, and Elections

By William C. Binning; Larry E. Esterly et al. | Go to book overview
Save to active project

M

MACHINE POLITICS describes a type of political organization which was common in early twentieth-century urban America. The local party was organized hierarchically, with a boss at the top, and below the boss, a layer of ward leaders very loyal to the boss. The ward leaders had a number of precinct workers loyal to them. The loyalty was based on material incentives, such as patronage jobs and contracts. The organization also provided an array of social benefits; for example, many of the early urban party organizations had baseball teams.

The party machines attempted to control the nomination and election of officeholders and, in return, expected the officeholders to render material benefits to the machine for distribution to its supporters. The machines were viewed as corrupt, and many of the reforms of the Progressive Era, such as the open primary and civil service reform, were promoted to break the grip of the machines on local and state politics. See:LOCAL PARTY ORGANIZATIONS.

References: Anne Freedman, Patronage: An American Tradition ( Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1994); Harold F. Gosnell, Machine Politics: Chicago Model, 2nd ed. ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968).

MADISON, JAMES ( 1751-1836), father of the Constitution of 1787, was born at Port Conway, Virginia on March 16, 1751, just 50 miles from Montpelier, the family plantation that Madison was to regard as his home throughout his long life in public service. Educated at Princeton, then the College of New Jersey, from which he graduated in 1771, the scholarly Madison was undecided as to a career in law or the ministry. Early on, drawn to the patriot cause, he chose law and government over religion and the church. Madison's study of

-265-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Encyclopedia of American Parties, Campaigns, and Elections
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 467

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?