incremental phases rather than through a revolution (see , weder 1968).
High levels of bureaucratization and institutional complexity tend to
be able to co-opt most social movements before they reach the stage of
revolution. In such cases, the place of culture in social struggle and
change becomes paramount.
Because of its diversity, a complete rendering of the Centre's empirical work
and theory falls outside the scope of this book. I focus on what appears to me to
be the central orienting ideas for Cultural Studies. For a more complete overview
of Cultural Studies, see Graeme Turner, British Cultural Studies; An Introduction
( Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1990); and Ben Aggar, Cultural Studies as Critical Theory
( London: Falmer, 1992).
But Mahar, Harker, and Wilkes depict this categorization of Bourdieu's as
simply "an attempt to situate himself within an arena known to his American
audience" ( 1990, pp. 23-24n). They prefer to call Bourdieu's work "generative
structuralism." One can only assume that their categorization is somehow excluded from the role of gate-keeping that they accuse all other labels of playing.
From a functionalist's point of view, Parsons referred to this last stage of
revolutionary social change as "institutionalization."
This critique is not original with me, and it is shared by others (e.g., Richard Jenkins
, Pierre Bourdieu, London: Routledge, 1992; Paul DiMaggio, "Review Essay: On Pierre Bourdieu," American Journal of Sociology, 1979, 84 :1460-1474).
The concept of selection pressures comes from Jonathan H. Turner ( 1995)
recent work on macrodynamics. Turner attributes the concept to Spencer and argues that these pressures are dynamic in the sense that they "cause" things to happen. I use the term in a Durkheimian sense: in the presence of high levels of
particularized culture, a collective will tend to seek out and create more generalized symbols to represent the group. But, as I have argued, these symbols do not
have to be the object of continual or periodic intense interaction. They may be
held in reserve as long as they do not become the subject of dispute. This conceptualization avoids the problems associated with consensus and high moral density.
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: The Meaning of Culture:Moving the Postmodern Critique Forward.
Contributors: Kenneth Allan - Author.
Publisher: Praeger Publishers.
Place of publication: Westport, CT.
Publication year: 1998.
Page number: 125.
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