The Home-Front War: World War II and American Society

By Kenneth Paul O'Brien; Lynn Hudson Parsons | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
Thomas B. McCabe, "Post-War Executive Talent," Advanced Management 8 ( 1943): 134-35.
2.
George E. Tucker, "Veterans in Industry," Personnel Journal 24 ( 1946): 334-337 at 335.
3.
On the practical incompatibility of coercive discipline and a mass conscript Army in World War I, see Jennifer Diane Keene, "Civilians in Uniform: Building an American Mass Army for the Great War," unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of History, Carnegie Mellon University, 1991.
4.
Sanford M. Jacoby, Employing Bureaucracy: Managers, Unions, and the Transformation of Work in American Industry. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985.
5.
Chester I. Barnard, The Functions of the Evecutive ( Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1938); Barnard, "The Nature of Leadership," in Human Factors in Management, ed. Schuyler Dean Hoslett (Parkville, MO: Park College Press, 1946): 13-38.
6.
Leadership and Motivation. ( Cambridge: MIT Press, 1966 [ 1944]): 49-65.
7.
Editorial, "It Takes a Man," Infantry Journal 56 ( May, 1945): 6-7.
8.
J. M. Culligan, "Package Commander," Infantry Journal 56 ( Feb. 1945): 40-41 at 41. For a statement by a sociologist who served as a naval officer, see George Homans , "The Small Warship," American Sociological Review 11 ( 1946): 294-300.
9.
A photograph of the Soldier's Qualification Card is reproduced in Carroll A. Shartle , Occupational Information. Its Development and Application ( New York: Prentice-Hall, 1946): 215-216. At IBM, the "Application for Employment" form that was in effect in 1947 asked men to state whether they had served in World War I or World War II (it was uninterested in peacetime service), their branch, and highest attained rank. A copy of the application is in Box 67, Folder 12, Technology and Society Collection, Yale University Library Special Collections.
10.
USMC Rehabilitation Division, Special Services Branch, Personnel Dept., "A Consideration of the Young Officer Problem," mimeographed, April, 1945, in National Archives, Record Group 2444--Retraining and Employment Administration General Files, Series 1, Box 56, folder 10-13, "Rehabilitation." And see the parallel case by a manager concerned with personnel at Standard Oil of California: Kenneth H. Shaffer, "Discovering and Developing Leadership Abilities in Management Personnel," Advanced Management 13 ( 1948): 84-87.
11.
U.S. House, Committee on Veterans' Affairs, Veterans in the United States-1960 (House Committee Report No. 17; 90th Cong. 1st Sess., 1967): 20-23. One must compare these data, foolishly pertaining only to veterans and categorized somewhat idiosyncratically, to total-population data in U.S. Bureau of the Census, United States Census of Population: 1960. Subject Reports. Occupational Characteristics (Final Report PC(2)-7A. USGPO, 1963): 144-173. I exclude from the base of the tabulations presented here those in agriculture, who were in fact far more common among the nonveterans, because agricultural employment was an extremely common basis for military deferment in World War II.
12.
The findings I report for 1960 are largely consistent with what Michael Neiberg and I have so far discovered in a study of veterans' employment patterns in 1950, based on the public-use microdata sample for that year, which allow for more detailed analysis.

-151-

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