SEQUELAE TO CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL HYPNOSIS
BILLIE S. STRAUSS Michael Reese Hospital and Medical Center, University of Illinois at Chicago
Although clinicians and researchers trained in and experienced with the use of hypnosis view it as a reasonably safe technique, difficulties have been reported in the literature. These difficulties have been characterized in several ways. The problem may be in the hypnotic experience itself (e.g., a subject does not awaken from hypnosis when suggestions are given) or in the larger therapeutic or experimental context (e.g., substitute symptoms are produced). The complication may range from minimal discomfort to actual harm to patients or subjects. Problematic effects following or during hypnotherapy and hypnosis experiments have been conceptualized as sequelae to hypnosis ( J. Hilgard, 1974b; J. Hilgard, & Hilgard, & Newman, 1961), dangers of hypnosis ( Conn, 1972; Meares, 1961; West & Deckert, 1965), undesirable effects of hypnosis ( Orne, 1965), transient experiences following hypnosis ( Crawford, Hilgard, & MacDonald, 1982), deleterious effects of hypnosis ( Kleinhauz & Eli, 1987), complications of hypnosis ( MacHovec, 1988), and adverse reactions in the use of hypnosis ( Mott, 1987). Examination of these problems is useful in order to minimize them in the future and to handle them more effectively should they occur.
Orne ( 1965) noted that most of the problematic effects of hypnosis occur in the therapeutic situation rather than in the experimental setting because the former creates expectations of change that may threaten a patient's coping mechanisms. The literature reports negative sequelae following experimental, therapeutic, and teaching/demonstration uses of hypnosis ( Lazar & Dempster
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Publication information: Book title: Creative Mastery in Hypnosis and Hypnoanalysis:A Festschrift for Erika Fromm. Contributors: Margot L. Fass - Editor, Daniel Brown - Editor. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of publication: Hillsdale, NJ. Publication year: 1990. Page number: 131.
This material is protected by copyright and, with the exception of fair use, may not be further copied, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means.